Info

Condition

Percussion Note

Trachea

Breath Sounds

Adventitious Sounds

Tactile Fremitus and Transmitted Voice Sounds

Normal

The tracheobronchial tree and alveoli are clear; pleurae are thin and close together; mobility of the chest wall is unimpaired.

Chronic Bronchitis

The bronchi are chronically inflamed and a productive cough is present. Airway obstruction may develop.

Left-Sided Heart Failure

(Early)

Increased pressure in the pulmonary veins causes congestion and interstitial edema (around the alveoli); bronchial mucosa may become edematous.

Consolidation

Alveoli fill with fluid or blood cells, as in pneumonia, pulmonary edema, or pulmonary hemorrhage.

Resonant

Resonant

Resonant

Midline

Midline

Midline

Dull over the airless area

Midline

Vesicular, except perhaps bronchovesicular and bronchial sounds over the large bronchi and trachea respectively

Vesicular (normal)

Vesicular

None, except perhaps a few transient inspiratory crackles at the bases of the lungs

Normal

None; or scattered coarse crackles in early inspiration and perhaps expiration; or wheezes or rhonchi

Late inspiratory crackles in the dependent portions of the lungs; possibly wheezes

Normal

Bronchial over the

Late inspiratory crackles

Increased over the

involved area

over the involved area

involved area, with

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