Young children with respiratory illness and lung hyperinflation may appear to have an enlarged liver and abdomen based on the liver edge being several cm below the right costal margin. Percussion will determine accurate liver size.
A pathologically enlarged liver in children is usually palpable more than 2 cm below the costal margin, has a round, firm edge, and is often tender. Causes in older children include neoplasms, infectious or inflammatory disease, metabolic or genetic diseases, and congestive heart failure.
One method to determine the lower border of the liver involves the scratch test, shown in the figure below. Place the diaphragm of your stethoscope just above the right costal margin at the midclavicular line. With your fingernail, lightly scratch the skin of the abdomen along the midclavicular line, moving from below the umbilicus toward the costal margin. When your scratching finger reaches the liver's edge, you will hear a change in the scratching sound as it passes through the liver to your stethoscope.
The spleen, like the liver, is felt easily in most children. It too is soft with a sharp edge, and it projects downward like a tongue from under the left costal margin. The spleen is moveable and rarely extends more than 1 cm to 2 cm below the costal margin.
Palpating for abdominal tenderness in an older child is the same as for the adult; however, the causes of abdominal pain are often different, encompassing a wide spectrum of acute and chronic diseases. Localization of tenderness may help you pinpoint the abdominal structures most likely to be causing the abdominal pain.
H Male Genitalia_
Was this article helpful?
You are about to discover the "little-known" techniques, tricks and "mind tools" that will show you how to easily "program" your body and mind to produce an instant, rock-hard erection. Learn how to enjoy all of the control, confidence and satisfaction that comes from knowing you can always "rise to the challenge" ... and never have to deal with embarrassment, apologies, shyness or performance anxiety in the bedroom, ever again.