Episcleritis is a localized ocular redness from inflammation of the episcleral vessels. In natural light, vessels appear salmon pink and are movable over the scleral surface. Usually benign and self-limited, episcleritis may be nodular, as shown here, or may show only redness and dilated vessels.


A yellowish, somewhat triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva on either side of the iris, a Pinguecula is harmless. Pingueculae appear frequently with aging, first on the nasal and then on the temporal side.

Sty (Acute Hordeolum)

A painful, tender, red infection in a gland at the margin of the eyelid, a sty looks like a pimple or boil pointing on the lid margin.

Inflammation of the Lacrimal Sac (Dacryocystitis)

A swelling between the lower eyelid and nose suggests inflammation of the lacrimal sac. An acute inflammation (illustrated) is painful, red, and tender. Chronic inflammation is associated with obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. Tearing is prominent, and pressure on the sac produces regurgitation of material through the puncta of the eyelids.

Chalazion Pulp


A chalazion is a subacute nontender nodule involving a meibomian gland. A beady nodule in an otherwise normal lid, it is usually painless. Occasionally a chalazion becomes acutely inflamed but, unlike a sty, usually points inside the lid rather than on the lid margin.

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