Generalized seizures, in contrast to partial ones, begin with either bilateral bodily movements or impairment of consciousness, or both. They suggest a widespread, bilateral cortical disturbance that may be either hereditary or acquired. When generalized seizures of the tonic-clonic (grand mal) variety start in childhood or young adulthood, they are often hereditary. When tonic-clonic seizures begin after the age of 30, suspect either a partial seizure that has become generalized or a general seizure caused by a toxic or metabolic problem. Toxic and metabolic causes include withdrawal from alcohol or other sedative drugs, uremia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia and water intoxication, and bacterial meningitis.


Clinical Manifestations

Postictal (Postseizure) State

Generalized Seizures

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