Representative Cervical And Lumbar Vertebrae

C4-5 Coronal and Lateral Views

Lamina Vertebral arch

Superior articular facet Pedicle

Transverse process

Spinous process

Spinous process

Lamina Vertebral arch

Superior articular facet Pedicle

Transverse process

Transverse foramen

Vertebral body

Transverse foramen

Vertebral body

Superior articular process

Superior articular process

-Spinous process

Transverse process

Intervertebral foramen

-Spinous process

T12-L1 Coronal and Lateral Views

Superior articular process

Transverse process

Vertebral foramen

Superior articular process

Transverse process

Superior Orbital Fissure

Vertebral foramen

Superior articular process

Inferior articular process

Superior articular process

Inferior articular process of a soft mucoid central core, the nucleus pulposus, rimmed by the tough fibrous tissue of the annulus fibrosis. The intervertebral discs cushion movement between vertebrae and allow the vertebral column to curve, flex, and bend. The flexibility of the spine is largely determined by the angle of the articular facet joints relative to the plane of the vertebral body, and varies at different levels of the spine. Note that the vertebral column angles sharply posterior at the lumbosacral junction and becomes immovable. The mechanical stress at this angulation contributes to the risk of disc herniation and subluxation, or slippage, of L5 on S1.

Muscle Groups. The trapezius and latissimus dorsi form the large outer layer of muscles attaching to each side of the spine. They overlie two deeper muscle layers—a layer attaching to the head, neck, and spinous processes (splenius capitis, splenius cervicis, and sacrospinalis) and a layer of smaller intrinsic muscles between vertebrae. Muscles attaching to the anterior surface of the vertebrae, including the psoas muscle and muscles of the abdominal wall, assist with flexion.

Muscles moving the neck and lower vertebral column are summarized below.

Trapezius (neck extension; overlies small intrinsic neck muscles of neck extension, rotation)

Splenius capitis (neck extension)

Sternocleidomastoid (neck flexion, rotation)

Deltoid Teres minor Teres major

Splenius capitis (neck extension)

Sternocleidomastoid (neck flexion, rotation)

Trapezius (neck extension; overlies small intrinsic neck muscles of neck extension, rotation)

Psoas Muscle Physical Therapy Ent

Deltoid Teres minor Teres major

Spinous process T12 External abdominal oblique Iliac crest

Gluteus maximus

Latissimus dorsi

Latissimus dorsi

Spinous process T12 External abdominal oblique Iliac crest

Gluteus maximus

Movement

Principal Muscle Group

Cervical Spine (neck)

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