Out of a piece of paper, cut a circle about the size of an optic disc shown below. The circle simulates an ophthalmoscope's light beam. Lay it on each illustration, and inspect each fundus systematically.
<~> Normal Fundus of a Fair-Skinned Person
Find and inspect the optic disc. Follow the major vessels in four directions, noting their relative sizes and the nature of the arteriovenous crossings—both normal here. Inspect the macular area. The slightly darker fovea is just discernible; no light reflex is visible in this subject. Look for any lesions in the retina. Note the striped, or tessellated, character of the fundus, especially in the lower field. This comes from normal choroidal vessels that are unobscured by pigment.
Again, inspect the disc, the vessels, the macula, and the retinal background. The ring around the fovea is a normal light reflection. Compare the color of the fundus to that in the illustration above.
It has a grayish brownish, almost purplish cast, which comes from pigment in the retina and the ^
choroid. This pigment characteristically obscures the choroidal vessels, and no tessellation is ro visible. In contrast to either of these two figures, the fundus of a light-skinned person with brunette coloring is redder. ^
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