The Cranial Nerves

Twelve pairs of special nerves called cranial nerves emerge from within the skull or cranium. Cranial Nerves II through XII arise from the diencephalon and the brainstem, as illustrated below. (Cranial Nerves I and II are actually fiber tracts emerging from the brain.) Some cranial nerves are limited to general motor or sensory functions, whereas others are specialized, producing smell, vision, or hearing (I, II, VIII).

Functions of the cranial nerves (CN) most relevant to physical examination are summarized on the next page.

Pituitary gland

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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