Visual Pathways From The Retina To The Visual Cortex

orbit. A lesion anywhere along this pathway may impair sympathetic effects on the pupil.

Extraocular Movements. The movement of each eye is controlled by the coordinated action of six muscles, the four rectus and two oblique muscles. You can test the function of each muscle and the nerve that supplies it by asking the patient to move the eye in the direction controlled by that muscle. There are six such cardinal directions, indicated by the lines on the figure on p. 123. When a person looks down and to the right, for example, the right inferior rectus (Cranial Nerve III) is principally responsible for moving the right eye, while the left superior oblique (Cranial Nerve IV) is principally responsible for moving the left. If one of these muscles is paralyzed, the eye will deviate from its normal position in that direction of gaze and the eyes will no longer appear conjugate, or parallel.

Superior rectus (III)

Lateral rectus (VI)

Inferior rectus (III)

Lateral rectus (VI)

Inferior__

oblique (III)

Medial rectus (III)

Superior oblique (IV)

Inferior__

oblique (III)

Medial rectus (III)

Superior oblique (IV)

Superior rectus (III)

Lateral rectus (VI)

Inferior rectus (III)

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