Quaternary Structure

Teriary Structure Bonding

Hydrophobic interactions and van der Waats interactions Superimposed on the patterns oi secondary structure, is a protein's ternary structure, shown above for the transthyretin polypeptide. Rad11 r than involving itK fractions between backbone constituents, t rciary structure is the overall shape oi a polypeptide result ng from ii iteractions between the side chains (R g oup ) of the various ammo a ids One type of interaction, that contributes to tertiary structure is somewhat misleadingly...

Elements and Compounds

Organisms are composed of matter, which is anything tb r takes up space and has mass.* Matter exists in many diverse forms, each with its own characteristics. Rocks, metals, oils, gases, and humans are just a few examples of what seems ar endless assortment of matter. 8 Sometimes we substitute the term weight for mass, although the two are not identical. Mass is the amount of matter in. an object, whereas the weight of an object is how strongly thai mass is pulled by gravity. The weight of an...

Info

Supplements, providing direction on how to facilitate problem-based learning, and listing suggested answers and opportunities lor extended investigations. racriong Biology, Instructor Edition, Second Edition L0-805V8184-2) he instructors version is available, online at , ittpj suppscentrol aw.com. fhe content from the Campbell BIOLOGY website is also tvailable in these popular course management systems CourseCompass, Blackboard, and WebCT. For more informa-ton, visit http cms.aw.com. nvigoraLe...

Hc1

This additional source of H+ (dissociation of water is the other source) results in the solution having more H1' than OH. Such a solution is known as an acidic solution. A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is called a base. Some bases reduce the H concentration directly by accepting hydrogen ions. Ammonia (NH3), for instance, acts as'a base when the unshared electron pair in nitrogen's valence shell attracts a hydrogen ion from the solution, resulting in an...

Mb H

. Figure 6.7 Geometric relationships between surface area and volume. In this diagram, cells are represented as boxes. Jsing arbitrary units of length, we can calculate the cell's surface area m square units), volume (in cubic units), and ratio of surface area to volume. The smaller the cell, the higher the surface-to-volume ratio, A high surface-to-volume ratio facilitates the exchange of materials netween a cell and its environment. . Figure 6.7 Geometric relationships between surface area...

Ionic Bonds

In some cases, two atoms are so unequal in their attraction for valence electrons that the more electronegative atom trips an electron completely away from its partner, This is whaL happens when an atom of sodium (uNa) encounters an atom of chlorine (i7Cl) (Figure 2.13) A sodium atom has a iotal of 11 electrons, with its single alence electron m the hird electron shell. A chlorine atom has a total of 17 electrons, with 7 electrons in its valence shell, When these two toms meet, the lone valence...

Functional Group

Tht amino group ( XH - eocis sis of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hvdr gm J rns and < y the carbon '-kdetun. The ul bydry group consists of a sulfur aiom bonded to an atom of hydrogen resembles a hydroxy group in shape. Jri > phosphate gnnjp. a phosphorus atom -5 horitind to tour atom. -. one oxygen is. bonded m the carbon skeleton, two oxygens carry chains abbreviated (P). The phosphate group ( OP * 5 .in ioru r ' ionri uf a phosphoric ac Id gr< u p ( O i '( -, I at Le 11 k two hydrogens...

Mechanisms of Evolution 436

2 Descent with Modification A Darwinian View of Life 438 overview Darwin Introduces a Revolutionary Theory 438 concept jj t The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species 438 Resistance to the Idea of Evolution 439 Theories of Gradualism 440 Lamarck's Theory of Evolution 440 conctpt 22.2 In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed that species change through natural selection 441 Darwin's Research 441 The Oiigin of Species 443 concept 22.j...

Results

In field sites where coral snakes were present, predators attacked far fewer artificial king snakes than brown artificial snakes. The warning coloration of the king snakes afforded no such protection where coral snakes were absent. In fact, at those field sites, the artificial king snakes were more likely to be attacked than the brown artificial snakes, perhaps because the bright pattern is particularly easy to spot against the background. b) Brown artificial snake that has been attacked A...

Biologists use various forms of inquiry7 to explore life

' he word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning to i now. Science is a way of knowing. It developed out oi our cu-riosiLy about ourselves, other life-forms, the world, and the universe. Striving to understand seems to be one of our basic urges. At the heart of science is inquiry, a search for information and explanation, ohen focusing on specific questions. Inquiry drove Darwin to seek answers in nature for how species adapt 10 their environments. And inquiry is driving the analyses of...

Testing Your Know Edge

T ie surface of the planet Mars has many landscape features reminiscent of those formed by (lowing water on Kartb, including what appear to be meandering channels and outwash areas. Re-c iit probes sent to Mars have revealed strong evidence that liquid v ater was once present on its surface. Ice exists at the Martian po es today, and some scientists suspect a great deal more water may be present beneath the Martian surface. Why has there been so much inu est in the presence oi water on Mars...

Chemical Foundations of Biology

Like oLher animals, beetles have evolved structures and mechanisms that defend them from attack. The soil-dwelling bombardier beetle has a particularly effective mechanism for dealing with the ants that plague it. Upon detecting an ant on its body this beetle ejects a spray of boiling hot liquid from glands in its abdomen, aiming the spray directly at the ant. (In Figure 2.1 the beetle aims its spray at a scientists forceps.) The spray contains irritating chemicals that are generated at the...

Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation

Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules Figure 4.5) The skeletons vary in length and may be straight, branched, or arranged in closed rings. Some carbon skeletons lave double bonds, which vary in number and location. Such variation in carbon skeletons is one important source of the rolecular complexity and diversity that characterize living rauer. In addition, atoms of other elements can be bonded to he skeletons at available sites. U1 the molecules shown in Figures 4.3 and...

Biologists explore life across its great diversity of species

We can think of biology's enormous scope as having two dimensions. The vertical dimension, which we examined in this chapter's first two concepts, is the size scale that reaches all the way from molecules to the biosphere. But biology's A Figure 1.1 J Drawers of diversity. This is just a small sample of the tens of thousands of species in the moth and butterfly collection at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C, A Figure 1.1 J Drawers of diversity. This is just a small...

Animal

This drawing of a generalized animal cell incorporates the most common structures of animal cells (no cell actually looks just like this). As shown by this cutaway view, the cell has a variety of organelles (little organs''), many ol which are bounded by membranes. The most prominent organelle in an animal cell is usually the nucleus. Most ol the cell's metabolic activities occur in the cytoplasm, th entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. The cytoplasm contains many...

Uvb

1 centimeter (cm) 10 2 meter (m) 0.4 inch 1 millimeter (mm) 103 m 1 micrometer (pm) 10 3 mm 10 6 m 1 nanometer (nm) 10 3 ju.ru 10 9 m A Figure 6.2 The size range of cells. Most cells are between 1 and 100 pm in diameter (yellow region of chart) and are therefore visible only under a microscope. Notice that the scale along the left side is logarithmic to accommodate the range of sizes shown. Starting at the top of the scale with 10 m and going down, each reference measurement marks a tenfold...

Evolution accounts for life unity and diversity

Figure i-16 An example of unity underlying the diversity of life the architecture of cilia in eukaryotes. Cilia (singular, cilium) are extensions of cells that function in locomotion. They occur in eukaryotes as diverse as the single-ceiled Paramecium and humans. But even organisms so different share a common architecture for their cilia, which have an elaborate system of tubules that is revealed in cross-sectional views. ll. How is 2 mailing address annln ous io biologyK hierarchical...

Ecology 1072

50 An introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere 1080 ovERVifw The Scope of Ecology 1080 concept' so i Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and the. environment 1080 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 1081 Organisms and Environment 1081 Subfields of Ecology 082 Ecology and Environmental Issues 1083 concept ia.i Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species 1083 Dispersal and Distribution 1084 Behavior and Habitat Selection 1085 Biotic...

Supplements

Campbell BIOLOGY Student CD ROM and Website www, ca m ) I > l H b wl i> y. com) The CD-ROM and website that accompany each book include 230 interactive Activities, 85 Videos, and 55 Investigations. In addition, new graphing exercises (Graph It ) help students learn how to build and interpret graphs. The CD-ROM and website are fully integrated with the text, reinforcing students' focus on the big ideas. The media organization mirrors that of the textbook, with all the Activities, Videos, and...

Insutaiiun oi Bodies of Water by Floating ke

Water is one of the few substances that are less dense as a solid than as a liquid. In other words, ice floats in liquid water. While other materials contract when they solidify, water expands. The cause of this exotic behavior is, once again, hydrogen bonding. At temperatures above 4 C, water behaves, like other liquids, expanding as it warms and contracting as i cools. Water begins to freeze when its molecules are no longe moving vigorously enough to break their hydrogen bonds. As the...

Aim Interview With

Until her recent retirement, Lydia Makhubu was the Vice Chancellor (in American terms. President) of the University of Swaziland, where she was also Professor of Chemistry. She received her higher education in Lesotho and at the Universities of Alberta and Toronto, where she earned a Ph.D. in Medicinal Chemistry. Building on her study of chemistry, Dr. Makhubu has had a distinguished career as a scientist in the area of health and traditional medicine, as a leader in higher education, and as a...

The formation and function oi molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms

Now that we have looked at the structure of atoms, we can move up the hierarchy of organization and see how atoms combine to form molecules and ionic compounds. Atoms with incomplete valence shells can interact with certain other atoms tn such a way that each partner completes its valence shell The atoms either share or transfer valence electrons. These interactions usually result in atoms staying close together, held by attractions called chemical bonds. The strongest kinds of chemical bonds...

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 238

Overview- Hereditary Similarity and Variation 238 concept i j.i Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 238 Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 239 CONCfifT 1 Fertilisation and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles 240 Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells 240 Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle 241 The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles 242 concfpt Tj.i Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid 243 The Stages of Meiosis 243...

H H

(t> ) Branching. in.-.v ij> > .nnranctied ur branched Rings. Sboptcarbofi skeleton are.jfli< ariged i rings i tiv d(jOr ' iiirt structural fomiufo for eacl. tftrrtpdimcJ ' (he gt each rnrnt'r rep'eSir-Ti a rarb6n -i-irJ i-> attached i .'.c.rcGtns. ii Figure 4.5 Variations in carbon skeletons. Hydrocarbons, organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen, illustrate the diversity of the carbon skeletons of organic molecules. ,.rned to synthesize in the early 19th (entury. The...

Etailed Contents

Overview Biology's Most Exciting Era 2 COHCtPi '-1 Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale 2 A Hierarchy of Biologic .1 Organization .3 A Closer Look at Ecosystems 6 A Closer Look at Cells 6 concept 1,3 Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts 9 The Emergent Properties of Systems 9 The Power and Limitations of ReducLionism 9 Systems Biology 10 Feedback Regulation in Biological Systems 11 concept i Biologists explore life across its great diversity of...

Secondary Structure

Tht primary structure 'i 9 fu- is ii- inique sequence of amino ads As an example, let's consider transthyretin, a globular piptein found in the bloi. . tJiat transports vitymi A and a particular hyroid hormone throughout tin- body i'.aci. of the Tqtn tdiriitical polypeptide chains that, together makeup transthyretin is composed of 127 amino acids. Shov. n here is one of these chains unfa feted for a closer lock at its primary, structure A specific one cf ihe 20 amino acids, indicated here by...

Nucleus

Chromatin material consisting o< r> NAand protein ,, visible as indjviriUr chromosomes In a dividing cell fifi mf orees cell's shape, functions in cell movement components are m tfl oi protein M icrofi la ments intermediate filaments Microtuhu' ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) network of mcmhramio , mc.s and tubes, auwe in membrane vyn uresis andotner synthetic and metabolic processes. c-h rough (r'bosoine-y.'jtlded and smomH leuions nonTneiribranous or 9 s neHes * I br o wr dob) tha t make u...

Unit

Overview- Chemical Foundations of Biology 32 coNttpi 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds 32 Elements and Compounds 32 Essential Elements of Life 33 hdhcept 2,2 An element's properties depend on the structure of its atoms 34 The Energy Levels of Electrons 36 Eledron Configuration and Chemical Properties 37 Electron Orbitals 38 cdnctpt 2,5 The formaLion and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms 39 Covalent Bonds 39...

Sub atomic Particles

Although the atom is the smallest unit having the properties of its element, these tiny bits of matter are composed of even smaller parts, called subatomic particles. Physicists have split the atom into more than a hundred types of particles, but only three kinds of particles are stable enough to be of relevance here neutrons, protons, and electrons. Neutrons and protons are packed together tightly to form a dense core, or atomic nucleus, at the center of the aLom. The electrons, moving at...

Nln

L Figure .9 Cellulose-digesting bacteria are found in grazing animals such as this cow. l Figure .9 Cellulose-digesting bacteria are found in grazing animals such as this cow. are a strong building material for plants as well as for humans, who use wood, which is rich in cellulose, for lumber. Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing its a linkages are unable to hydrolyze the (3 linkages of cellulose because of the distinctly different shapes of these two molecules. In fact, few organisms...

Technique

nHBHoi Researchers aim an X-ray beam through the crystii iized protein. The atoms of the crystal diffract (deflect) the X-rays into an orderly array. The diffracted X-rays expose photographic film, producing a pattern of spots known as an X-ray diffraction pattern. t X-ray

The Molecules of Life

' e have seen how the concept of emergent proper-i ties applies to water and relatively simple organic F molecules. Each type of small molecule has unique properties arising from the orderly arrangement of its atoms. Another level in the hierarchy of biological organization is reached when small organic molecules are joined inside cells, forming larger molecules. The four main classes of large biological molecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Many of these cellular...

Steroids

Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings (Figure 5.IS) Different steroids vary in the functional groups attached to this ensemble of ings. One steroid, cholesterol, is a common component of unmal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized. Many hormones, including vertebrate sex hormones, are steroids produced rom cholesterol (see Figure 4.9). Thus, cholesterol is a crural molecule in animals, although a high...

Organic chemistry is the smdy of carbon compounds

Compounds containing carbon are said to be organic, and the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry. Organic compounds range from simple molecules, such as methane (CH4), to colossal ones, such as proteins, wiLh thousands of atoms and molecular masses in excess of 100,000 da I tons. Most organic compound-contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms. The overall percentages of the major elements of life C, H, O, N, S, and P are...

Yvx

A Figure 5,15 Cholesterol, a steroid. Cholesterol is the molecule from which other steroids, including the sex hormones, are synthesized. Steroids vary in the functional groups attached to their four interconnected rings (shown in gold). . Figure 3-14 Bilayer structure formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in an aqueous environment. The phospholipid h layer shown here is the main fabric of biological membranes. Note t ict the hydrophillc heads of the phospholipids are in contact with water...

Cohesion

Water molecules stay close to each other as a result of hydrogen bonding. When water is in its liquid form, its hydrogen bonds are very fragile, about one-twentieth as strong as cova-lent bonds. They form, break, and re-form with great frequency. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of e second, but the molecules are constantly forming new bonds with a succession of partners. Thus, at any instant, a substantial percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors,...

Dissociation of water molecules leads to acidic and basic conditions that affect living organisms

Occasionally, a hydrogen atom participating in a hydrogen bond between two water molecules shifts from one molecule 10 the other. When this happens, the hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind, and what is actually transferred is a hydrogen on, a single proton with a charge of 1 + . The water molecule i hat lost a proton is now a hydroxide ion (OH-), which has 11 charge of .1 -. The proton binds to the other w ater molecule, naking that molecule a hydronium ion (H30+). We can pic-ure the...

Viodet alion 1 Temperature

Abater moderates air temperature by absorbing heat from air hat is warmer and releasing the stored heat to air that is tooler. Water is effective as a heat bank because it can absorb > r release a relatively large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature. To understand this capability if water, we must first look briefly at heat and temperature. Anything that moves has kinetic energy, the energy of mo-ion. Atoms and molecules have kinetic energy because they are always...

The Culture of Science

Vlovies and cartoons sometimes portray scientists as loners working in isolated labs. In reality, science is an intensely social tctivity. Most scientists work in teams, which often include )oth graduate and undergraduate students iFjgure 1.31) And o succeed in science, it helps to be a good communicator. Research results have no impact until shared with a community of peers through seminars, publications, and websites. Both cooperation and competition characterize the scien-.ific cukure....

Proteins have many structures resulting in a wide range of functions

The importance of proteins ts implied by their name, which comes from the Greek word protdos, meaning first place. Proteins account for more than 50 of the dry mass of most cells, and they are instrumental in almost everything organisms do. Some proteins speed up chemical reactions, while others play a role in structural support, storage, transport, cellular communications, movement, and defense, against foreign substances (Table 5.1, on the next page). The most important type of protein may be...

Summary Ot Kly Concepts

Mailer consists of chemical elements in pare form und in combinations called compounds 1 Element* and Compounds (pp. 32-33) Elements cannot be broken down chemically to other substances. A compound contains two or more elements in a fixed ratio. Essential Elements of 1.1 ft (pp. 33-34) Carbon, oxygen, hydro'. n, and nitrogen make up , proximately 96 of living matter. lntf tJgatiou Wow Are SpiKe Rodts Analyzed for Signs of Life An element s properties depend on the structure of is atoms...

Jidsiitrc Technology and Society

While waiting at an airport, Neil Campbell once ovcrheard this claim It's paranoid and ignorant to worry about inc irLrv or agriculture contaminating the environment with their chemicai wastes. Afte all, this stuff is just made of the same atoms that were already preser. in our environment. How would you counter this argument7 Female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract males by emitting chemical signals that spread through the air. A male hundreds of meters away can detect these molecules and...

Summary Of Key Concepts

Thtr polarity uf water molecules it-suits in hydrogen bonding A hydrogen bond forms when the oxygen of one water molecule is electrically attracted to the hydrogen of a nearby molecule. Hydrogen bonding between water molecules is the basis for water's unusual properti--s (pp. 47-48). ct i -j 11 y 7 Ti e Pol rrty t IMite> Feur emergent properties qf water contribute to Cohesion (pp. 48-49) Hydrogen bonding keeps water molecules close to each other, and this cohesion helps pull water upward in...

H

Acetic acid, which gives vinegar its sour taste Is polar as a result of the electronegative, oxygen atom drawing electrons toward itself. dissolve organic compounds such as sugars (see Figure 5.3). > AkjfKini and an uklctivcls rnav lie su acu.ir.ii i-oineis wilVi different properties, as is thir case lo- ati'toiiir m id nroo-m. Has acidic properties because it is a source of hydrogen ions. > The covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar that hydrogen ions (H) tend to dissociate...

Choh

Figure Exampfes of disaccharide synthesis. Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycoside linkages. Some polysaccharides serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells. Other polysaccharides serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism. The architecture and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and by the positions of its...

We have restructured each chapter to bring its key concepts into even sharper locus

The discovery explosion that makes modern biology so exciting also threatens to suffocate students under an avalanche of information. The past few editions of BIOLOGY set the details in a context of key concepts, typically ten to twenty per chapter. In this new ediLion, we have taken the next evolutionary step of restructuring each chapter to help students iocus on fewer, even bigger ideas typically just five or six key concepts per chapter. A new Overview section at the beginning of each...

Brief Contents

Water and the Fitness of the Environment 47 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 58 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules 68 S A Tour of the Cell 94 7 Membrane Structure and Function 124 a An Introduction to Metabolism 141 Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy 160

Carbon The Backbone of Biological Molecules

Although water is the universal medium for life on Earth, living organisms, including all the plants and the snail you see in Figure 4,1, are made up of chemicals based mostly on the element carbon. Carbon enters the biosphere through the action of plants, which use the sun's energy to transform C02 in the atmosphere into the molecules of life. These molecules are then passed along to animals that feed on plants, such as the snail in the photo. Of all chemical elements, carbon is unparalleled...

J

(a) X-ray diffraction pattern (b) 3D computer model L Why does a denatured protein no longer Function normally 2. Differentiate between secondary and tertiary structure by describing the parts of the polypeptide chain that participate in the bonds that hold together each Jevc of structure 3. A genetic mutation can change a protein's primary structure. How can this destroy the protein function For suggested Answers, see Appendix A. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information If the...

Plant Structure Growth and Development 712

OuEBVhtW No Two Plants Are Alike 712 concept 35. i The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, The Three Basic Plant Organs Roots, Stems, and Leaves 713 The Three Tissue Systems. Dermal, Vascular, and Ground 717 Common Types of Plant Cells 717 concept jlis Meristems generate cells for new organs 720 Concept 35,3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots 721 Primary Growth of Roots 721 Primary Growth of Shoots 723 concept as.4 Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants 725 The...

Weak Chemical Bond

In living organisms, most of the strongest chemical bonds are covalent ones, which link atoms to form a cell's molecules. But weaker bonding within and between molecules is also indispensable in the cell, where the properties of life emerge from such interactions. The most important large biological molecules are held in their functional form by weak bonds. In addition, when two molecules in the cell make contact, they may adhere temporarily by weak bonds. The reversibility of weak bonding can...

Molecular Shape ami Function

A molecule has a characteristic size and shape. The precise shape of a molecule is usually very important to its function in the living cell. A molecule consisting of two atoms, such as H2 or 02, is always linear, but molecules with more Lhan two atoms have (a) Hybridization of Orbitals. The single s and three p orbitals of a valence shell involved in covalent bonding combine to form four teardrop-shaped hybrid orbitals. These orbitals extend to the four corners of an imaginary tetrahedron...

Oh

,'a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid i Figure 5-26 The components of nucleic acids, (a) A polynucleotide has . regular sugar-phosphate backbone with variable appendages, the four kinds of nitrogenous bases. RNA usually exists in the form of a single polynucleotide, like ihe one shown here, (b) A nucleotide monomer is made up of three components nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group, linked together as shown ere. Without the phosphate group, the resulting structure is called a...

New Exploring Figures provide efficient access to many complex topics

Thus we have, always authored BIOLOGY'S graphics and narrative side by side lo coordinate their message. In the Seventh Edition, this text-art integration reaches its next evolutionary level with a new feature called Exploring Figures. Each of these large figures is a learning unit that brings together a set of related illustrations and the text that describes them. The Exploring Figures enable stu- r I Mhh'i iss l i11its, art, photos, and text are fully integrated....

The Diversity of Polymers

Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules the collection varies from one type of cell to another even in the same organism. The inherent differences between human siblings reflect variations in polymers, particularly DNA and proteins. Molecular differences between unrelated individuals are more extensive and between species greater still. The diversity of macromolecules in the living world is vast, and the possible variety is effectively limitless. What is the basis for such...

The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding

Water is so common that it is easy to overlook the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following Lhe theme of emergent properties, we can trace, waters unique behavior to the structure and interactions of its molecules. Studied in isolation, the water molecule is deceptively simple. Us two hydrogen atoms are joined to the oxygen atom by single covalenL bonds. Because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, the electrons of the polar bonds spend more...

The Molecule That Supports All of Life

S astronomers study newly discovered planets orbiLing distant stars, they hope to find evidence of water on these far-off celestial bodies, lor water is the substance .hat makes possible life as we know it here on Earth. All organ-sms familiar lo us are made mostly of water and live in an environment dominated by water. WaLer is the biological medium hire on Earth, and possibly on other planets as well. Life on Earth began in water and evolved there for 3 billion years before spreading onto...

New to the Seventh Edition

The following list provides just a few highlights of what's new Chapter 1 now includes a discussion of systems biology as one of Lhe books themes. > - The section on scientific inquiry is more robust and features a new ease study of research on mimicry in snake populations. At the suggestion of many instructors, the chapter on the basic principles of energy and metabolism, formerly ChapLer 6, has been moved to Unit Two. In this edition, we provide a basic introduction to ATP in Chapter 4 and...

Preface

Rharl.es Darwin described evolution as a process of descent with modification. It is a phrase that also fits the --___-continuing evolution of BIOLOGY. This Seventh Edition is our most ambitious revision of the book since its origin a new textbook species with several evolutionary adaptations shaped by the changing environment of biology courses and by the astonishing progress of biological research. But these adaptive modifications are still true to the two complementary teaching values at the...

Lna

Take another look at the dividing cell in Figure 1.5. Within he cells you can see structures called chromosomes, which are stained with a blue-glowing dye. The chromosomes are partly made of a substance called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA for short, DNA is the substance of genes, the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring. Your blood group (A, B, AB, or O), for example, is the result of certain genes that you inherited from your parents. Each chromosome has...

Fvolutinn Connection

Some scientists believe that life elsewhere in the universe might be based on the element silicon, rather than on carbon, as on Earth. What properties does silicon share with carbon that would make silicon-based life more likely than, say, neon-based life or aluminum-based life (See Figure 2.8.) Ii 1918, an epidemic of sleeping sickness caused an unusual iigicl paralysis in some survivors, similiar to symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease. Years later, L-dopa, a chemical used to treat...

Biologists explore life from lhe microscopic to the global scale

Images Energy Processing Organisms

The study of liie extends from the microscopic scale of the molecules and cells that make up organisms to the global scale of Lhe enLire living planet. We can divide this enormous range into different levels o biological organization. e Energy processing. This hummingbird obtains fuel in the form of nectar from flowers. The hummingbird wil use the chemical energy stored in its food to power flight and other work. g Reproduction. Organisms living things reproduce their own kind-Here an emperor...

David Pfennig Treatment Group Artificial King Snake

Coral Snake Mimicry Experiment

is rfnex not dbify hypca1 amp f iyurv A campground example of hypothesis-based inquiry. Dcdutnon rJic If. - . fFim ogir of Hypothesis-Based Science A type of logic called deduction is built into hypothesis based science. Deduction contrasts with induction, which, remember, is reasoning from a set of specific observations to reach a general conclusion. In deductive reasoning, the logic flows in the opposite direction, lrom the general to the specific. From general premises, we extrapolate to...

Biologys Most Exciting

Welcome to biology, the scientific study of life. You are becoming involved with biology during its most exciting era. The largest and best-equipped community of scientists in history is beginning to solve biological puzzles that ono.- seemed unsolvable. We are moving ever closer to understanding how a single microscopic cell develops into a complex plant or animal how plants converL solar energy to the chemical energy of food how the human mind works how various forms oi life network in...

Reviewers of the Seventh Edition

Thomas Adams, Michigan State University Shylaja Akkaraju, Bronx Community College of CUNY Bonnie Amos, Angela Stale University J, David Archibald, San Diego State University David Armstrong, University of Colorado at Boulder Mary Ashley, University of Illinois at Chicago Karl Aufderheide, Texas A amp M University Susan Barman, Michigan State University Andrew Barton, University oj Maine, Farmington Dav Ci dciss, University oj Central Oklahoma Bonnie Baxter, Hobart amp William Smith Tirn...

O

1 FrW ttiotogical Inquiry V Workbook of Investigative Casts 00-8053-7176-1 Margaret Waterman, Southeast Missouri State University, and iithel Stanley, Beloit College This new workbook offers eight investigative cases, one for each unit of the textbook. In order to understand the science in each case, students will pose questions, analyze data, think critically, examine the relationship between evidence and conclusions, construct hypotheses, investigate options, graph data, interpret esuks, and...

The Tree of Life An Introduction to Biological Diversity 512

Ovtnvitiv Changing Life on a Changing Earth 512 concept Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible 513 Synthesis of Organic Compounds on Early Earth 513 Abiotic Synthesis of Polymers 514 Protobionts 515 The RNA World and the Dawn of Natural Selection 515 ttiwctpi 16.2 The fossil record chronicles life on Earth 517 How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated .517 The Geologic Record 518 Mass Extinctions 518 concept 16.3 As prokaryotes evolved, they exploited and changed young Earth 521 The...

I

As soon as we are near enough to Earth to make out its continents we begin to see signs of life in the greer. mosaic of the planet's r example. This is our first view of the biosphere, which consists of all the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life. The biosphere includes most regions of land most bodies of water, such as oceans, lakes, and rivers and the atmosphere to an altitude of several kilometers. Q Ecosystems. As we approach Earth's surface for an imaginary...

Reviewers of Previous Editions

Kenneth Able State University of New York, Albany , Martin Adamson University of Brilish Columbia , John Alcock Arizona State University , Richard Almon. State University of New York, Buffalo , Katherine Anderson University of California, Berkeley , Richard J Andren Montgomery County Community College , Estry Ang University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg , J. David Archibald Yak University , Howard J. Arnou University of Texas at Arlington , Robert Atherlon University of Wyoming , Leigh Auleb San...

Research Method Figures

6.5 Cell Fractionation 97 Freeze Fracture 126 10 '- Determining an Absorption Spectrum 187 14.2 Crossing Pea Plants 252 The Testcross 256 15.7 Constructing a Linkage Map 281 20.4 Cloning a human gene in a Bacterial Plasmid 387 20.5 Nucleic Acid Probe Hybridization 389 20.7 The Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR 391 20.10 Southern Blotting of DNA Fragments 395 20 12 Dideoxy Chain-Termination Method for Sequencing DNA 397 20.14 DMA Microarray Assay of Gene Expression Levels 4 01 20.19 Using the Ti...

Acknowledgments

J' l ne of the eminent scientists interviewed in this new edition pointed out that much of the fun of doing biology comes from V _ working with a diversity of taienLed people. The same can be said for making a biology textbook. Fortunately for us, this Seventh Edition of BIOLOGY is the product of the talents, dedication, and enthusiasm of a large and varied group of people. The authors wish to express their deepest thanks to the numerous instructors, researchers, students, publishing...

Pearson

San Francisco Boston New York Cape Town Hong Kong London Madrid Mexico City Montreal Munich Paris Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto Senior Supervising Editor Deborah Gale Supen ising Editors Pat Burner and Beth N. Winickojf Marketing Managers Josh Fmst and Jeff Hester Developmental Editors John Burner, Alice E. Fugate, Sarah C. C.Jensen, Matt Lee, Suzanne Olivier, Ruth Steyn, and Susan Whsberg Developmental Artists Hilair Chism, Blakeley Kirn, Kenneth Probst, Carta Simmons, and Laura Southworth...