Natural and Traditional Cures for Prostatitis

The 21 Day Prostate Fix

21 Day Prostate Fix written by Radu Belasco is a healthier alternative to drugs and invasive medical procedures. Radu Belasco is an early prostate problem sufferer, with a family history of prostate pain, problems and cancer. Using a unique system of natural remedies, he fixed his prostate problems and wrote them in his smash hit eBook The 21 Day Prostate Fix. It is about miraculous herbs and fruits from all over the world. These unique foods have the power to cure your prostates inflammation in record time and shrink it to a healthier size. Also, you will learn how to concoct the miracle elixir that will not just cleanse your prostate, but also burn body fat. Aside from these, youll get topnotch information on nutrition, so you can keep your prostate healthy and your sex drive at its peak. Plus, youll learn other health conditions that might be contributing to your prostate issues, so you can also remedy them and get your body in its best shape ever.

The 21 Day Prostate Fix Summary

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The Anus Rectum and Prostate Multiple Choice

A 65-year-old gardener presents to the office for difficulty with urination. Increasingly, he has noticed feeling like his bladder has not emptied completely and his urinary stream has a decreased force. He experiences dribbling after he completes urination. These symptoms have been going on for several years, but his level of discomfort has increased over the past few months. On physical examination, you feel a symmetrically enlarged, smooth, and firm prostate (A) Normal prostate (B) Prostatitis (C) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (D) Prostate cancer 6. A 36-year-old computer programmer presents to the office with pain with urination, and fever. On palpation of the prostate, his gland is swollen, tender, and warm to the touch. Your most likely diagnosis is (A) Normal prostate (B) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (C) Prostate cancer (D) Prostatitis

Micronutrients Prostate

Impaired zinc metabolism within the prostate gland may contribute to enlargement. Supplementation may reduce gland size and improve symptoms3 Supplementation may reduce risk of enlargement and prostate cancer1 prostate gland may contribute to enlargement. Supplementation can reduce activity of these substances and may reduce gland size and improve symptoms Fig. 5.31 Vitamin E supplementation and risk of prostate cancer. 30,000 50-69-year-old Finnish men were given 50 mg day alpha-tocopherol or placebo for 5-8 years. There were 151 new cases of prostate cancer in the placebo group, compared with only 99 new cases in the treatment group. (Source The ATBC Cancer Prevention Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 330 1029)

Screening for Prostate Cancer What Was the Current PSA

While entering prostate specific antigen (PSA) results into the tumor marker database, a clinical laboratory scientist noted that James Braun, age 58, had previous results at yearly intervals since age 55. The values had remained stable in the range of 3.2 to 3.4 ng mL (reference range, 2.0 to 4.0 ng mL) until this past year, when a value of 4.2 ng mL was determined 6 months ago. The CLS recalled that generally PSA is analyzed every 12 months. Did his current PSA of 4.2 ng mL indicate prostatic cancer she wondered.

Prostate Specific Antigen

_ granules of columnar acinar prostate cells. It is a protease with trypsin-like enzy- makes up a gland such as the up, PSA is highly antigenic and readily measured by immunoassay techniques. The pancreas or prostate first techniques for analysis of PSA were various types of immunoradiometric assay Prostate specific antigen levels may not provide enough information for staging of cancer. However, these tumor markers generally provide useful information in follow-up to treatment.33 For example, in a longitudinal study following patients undergoing treatment for prostatic cancer, very low PSA levels after 5 years indicated a high likelihood for long-term remission.34 Since so many older men are having PSA levels assessed frequently, there is a wealth of data concerning PSA, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatic cancer. A recent study that involved data collected over a 20-year period concluded that recent findings show that serum PSA is statistically related only to prostate...

Tumor Markers for the Prostate

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a tumor marker for prostatic carcinoma. The perfect tumor marker would be highly specific to a particular tumor within a specific tissue, be released into blood or urine for ease of analysis, provide body fluid levels that correlate with amount of tumor cells or malignancy, have potential for detection prior to overt symptoms or in early stages, have a short half-life so that changes reflect response to therapy, and have the ability to be assessed with near 100 sensitivity and specificity. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) meets some of those requirements but falls short in sensitivity. Prostate specific antigen meets nearly all these requirements in detecting prostatic cancer.28 However, it is also released into blood and body fluids when the prostate is inflamed and enlarged, the condition known as prostatism. Prostatic specific antigen and prostatic acid phos-phatase are tumor markers that are best utilized if the patient has certain risk factors...

Prostate Cancer Stem Cells A Target for New Therapies

1.1 Prostate Cancer Therapy A Historical View 156 2 Transgenic Mouse Models of Prostate Cancer 157 3 Prostate Cancer A Disease of Epithelial Differentiation 157 5 Definition of the Stem Cell Phenotype in Prostate 159 6 The Origins of Prostate Cancer 161 7 Isolation of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells 163 8 Gene Expression in Prostate Cancer Stem Cells 167 9 Implications for Prostate Cancer Therapy 170 Abstract. Prostate cancer is now a common disease in men over 50 years of age. Medical therapies for prostate cancer are based on discoveries from the mid-twentieth century, and in the long term are rarely curative. Most treatments are directed towards an androgen receptor-expressing, highly proliferative target cell, which does indeed form the vast majority of cells in a prostate tumour. However, by invoking the existence of a cancer stem cell which, like normal epithelial stem cells in the prostate, does not express androgen receptor and is relatively quiescent, the observed resistance to...

Other Prostate Tumor Markers

Other prostatic cancer tumor markers have been utilized in the past, including total acid phosphatase activity, total alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone fraction of alkaline phosphatase activity. These enzymes have varying degrees of tissue specificity to the prostate gland, with bone alkaline phosphatase more specific than acid phosphatase activity, which is more specific than total alkaline phosphatase activi-ty.25 Recently developed prostatic cancer tumor markers include proPSA, which is a precursor to active PSA, and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Serum concentrations of these two markers are elevated in prostate cancer and have strong ability to discriminates between cancer and BPH or no disease. Two surprising prostatic cancer tumor markers are insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulinlike growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which are associated with increased risk for prostate cancer.39 There are also gene-based and cell-based bio-markers that are...

Prostate Enlargement Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

The prostate gland produces the fluid that surrounds and nourishes the sperm in semen. A common condition of older men is enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia) three-quarters of men undergo some enlargement by their seventh decade. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra just below the bladder, and enlargement of the gland constricts flow of urine out of the bladder. This results in a frequent need to urinate, a slow, diminished stream of urine, and in- ability to fully empty the bladder. Although prostate enlargement can rarely be due to a cancer in the gland, in most cases, the process is benign and the cause unknown.

Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a doughnut-shaped glandular organ found surrounding the urethra in men. Its function is to secrete seminal fluids. Prostatic cancer is common in males, and the second most common cause of cancer death among males, with increasing chance of developing this cancer over time. Risk factors for prostatic cancer in males include age over 40 years. For example, the incidence of prostatic cancer increases with age such that more than 50 of males over the age of 70 years have cancer of the prostate. Prostate cancer may be asymptomatic or may present with symptoms of generalized prostatism. Benign prostate cell growth is generally responsive to little or no treatment. Detection of prostate cancer is achieved by a combination of physical examination, biochemical testing, and imaging techniques. Physical examination by digital rectal examination of the prostate will also provide valuable information but should generally be performed after the blood sample has been drawn since...

Diet Prostate

High-fat diets, particularly saturated fat from animal sources (meat, eggs, dairy products), promotes enlargement of the prostate and may also increase risk of prostate cancer.1,2 Diets high in fruits and vegetables, particularly those rich in lycopene (a carotenoid found in large amounts in tomatoes), reduce risk of prostate enlargement and cancer.1 Overactivity of certain prostaglandins within the prostate gland may contribute to enlargement. Substituting high-quality, cold-pressed plant oils for saturated fat in the diet, along with eating fresh fish two to three times per

B Prostate cancer

A recently published model 18 addressed an important question what should be the initial treatment of prostate cancer in elderly men Radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or watchful waiting The authors subclassified the cancers into three grades Gleason 2-4, 5-7, 810. Their results are shown in Figure 2. They also analyzed the impact of comorbidity on the outcome. In men with Gleason 5-7 cancer, radical prostatectomy, but not radiation therapy resulted in higher quality adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with mild comorbidity up to age 75, and men with moderate comorbidity up to age 65. For aggressive disease, potentially curative therapy improves QALE in men with even moderate comorbidity up to age 75.

Prostate Gland

Epidemiological studies suggested that consumption of tomato products is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer in men. It was soon shown that there is also an association between intake of tomato products and increased levels of lycopene in human prostate (132,152), and this has been confirmed in other studies. The intake-dependent accumulation of lycopene in prostate in the rat has also been demonstrated (149). The percentage of lycopene present as cis isomers is greater in human prostate than in serum and higher in serum than in food products (132,134,153), suggesting either isomerization or preferential retention of cis isomers in tissues.

Calreticulin in Neoplasia

It would be premature to speculate on the nature of these correlative observations, but it has been suggested that calreticulin might control tumour progression by initiating a loss of apoptotic potential in tumours (Bruchovsky et al. 1996). Calreti-culin levels increased in NG 108-15 neuroblastoma glioma hybrid cells when induced to differentiate by treatment with db-cAMP (Johnson et al. 1998). Interestingly, however, antisense oligonucleotides for calreticulin do induce cell death in undifferentiated cells but not in differentiated cells. When the apoptotic pathway is experimentally induced in HL-69 cells by exposing them to geranylgeraniol, the expression of calreticulin is inhibited (Nakajo et al. 1996). Similarly, antisense calreticulin oligonucleotides seem to protect prostate cancer cell lines from calcium ionophore A23187-induced apoptosis. In this experimental system both androgen and calreticulin seem to be involved in the control of apoptotic events. A23187 induces...

Angiogenesis Blockers

Tumors, like normal tissue, cannot grow to more than a millimeter or two in diameter without being vascularized. Consequently, angiogenesis is a prime target for cancer therapy. Clinical trials are currently in progress to test angiogenesis inhibitors on cancers of the breast, prostate, brain, pancreas, lung, stomach, ovary, and cervix, as well as leukemia and lymphomas. So far the studies have had limited success. Endostatin, a widely studied drug that is toxic to endothelial cells, showed great promise in preliminary studies. It is safe to administer, but it has failed to demonstrate antitumor effects. An extract from the Asian fruit Gleditsia sinensis (GSE) has been shown to be an effective blocker ofVEGF transcription but has yet to progress beyond the basic research stage. Another compound, extracted from green tea, called GTE is known to be a powerful blocker of endothelial cell proliferation but, like GSE, it is still at the preclinical stage of development. The most successful...

Causes Of Hyponatremia

Posttransurethral resection of prostate bladder tumor resection of the prostate is a common cause of hyponatremia because of the large volume of mannitol-containing bladder irrigation fluid used intraopera-tively. For either of these states, correction of the glucose level (or excretion of the mannitol) corrects the hyponatremia.

Central Dogma Of Tumor Progression

Actually be the same genes involved in a selective growth advantage for these cells. These cells maybe lurking even in early-stage cancers. That is, some cancers are predestined almost from the beginning to evolve into invasive, metastatic tumors and some are not. This possibility has huge implications for cancer screening, diagnosis, and choice of therapy. Numerous women receive a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast based on mammography screening, and many men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer based on a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and subsequent biopsy. And yet many of these patients have indolent tumors that would not affect their overall life expectancy, and they still often undergo significant surgical and drug treatments. The problem is that we are only beginning to be able to tell (e.g., by gene expression arrays) which of these so-called early-stage cancers will be lethal and which ones won't.

Clinical features

1 Prostatectomy for benign prostatic hypertrophy involves removal of the hypertrophic mass of glandular tissue from the surrounding normal prostate, which is compressed as a thin rim around it a false capsule (Fig. 88). This is usually performed transurethrally by means of an operating cystoscope armed with a cutting diathermy loop. During this procedure, the verumontanum, (colliculus seminalis), is an important landmark. The surgeon keeps his resection above this structure in order not to damage the urethral sphincter. If the prostate is very enlarged, open prostatectomy is indicated. The gland is approached retropubically, the capsule incised transversely and the hypertophied mass of gland enucleated. Anterior to the urethra the prostate consists of a narrow fibromuscular isthmus containing little, if any, glandular tissue. Benign glandular hypertrophy of the prostate, therefore, never affects this part of the organ. 3 The fascia of Denonvilliers is important surgically in excising...

Reflectance Measurement of Carotenoids in Skin

300 Chroma Meter

The larger number of conjugated carbon bonds in lycopene compared to the other carotenoids in skin produces an absorption band shift that can be used to measure lycopene independently of the other carotenoids (88). It is possible in this way to assess this carotenoid independently from the other dietary carotenoids. There is considerable interest in a specific role for lycopene in prevention of prostate cancer and other diseases (83,91), and a noninvasive biomarker for lycopene consumption would be of tremendous utility.

Age And Natural History Of Cancer

Beneficial to older post-menopausal women 45. Likewise, age does not seem to reduce the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage III cancer of the large bowel46. The only situations in which the natural history of cancer may suggest to forgo the use of antineoplastic treatment include smoldering AML and early stage prostate cancer in man aged 70 and older. Though smoldering acute leukemia is an obsolete term, this definition may still be helpful to encompass two conditions hypoplastic acute leukemia, that is AML with a marrow cellularity lower than 10 and AML associated with Myelodysplasia, with a percentage of blasts in the bone marrow between 20 and 30 , that does not undergo any significant change over three months. In both cases the predominant clinical picture is pancytopenia, the incidence of leukostasis is negligible, cytotoxic chemotherapy is associated with low therapeutic response and high risk of early mortality, while supportive treatment with transfusion...

The Role Of Thymosin Family Actinbinding Proteins In Actin Dynamics

There are also important implications of thymosin overexpression for cell migration in the context of cancer invasion, because thymosins have been reported to be overexpressed in neoplastic cells (see below). Especially significant are the reported specificity of response by endothelial cells to Tp4 and the associated overexpression of metalloproteinases. Metalloproteinases have been closely associated with breaching of the endothelium and aiding the diapedesis of cancer cells into the vascular compartment (Sherbet and Lakshmi, 1997b). Tp4 is reported to be highly expressed in the intrinsically highly motile embryonic mesenchymal cells (Carpintero et al. 1996). The expression of Tp15 seems to be up-regulated in the highly motile Dunning rat prostate cancer cell lines. Besides, the transfection of antisense constructs of Tp15 gene apparently alters the motility of these cells (Bao et al. 1996). As stated before, the putative association of overexpression of TP4 with increased...

Antitumor Sulfonamides

The development of CAIs possessing potent tumor cell growth inhibitory properties was reported by this group (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000b, 2000c Scozzafava and Supuran 2000a Supuran et al. 2001). Such compounds were discovered in a large screening program in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of sulfonamide CAIs. Several hundred aromatic heterocyclic sulfonamides were assessed in vitro as potential inhibitors of growth of a multitude of tumor cell lines, such as leukemia, nonsmall cell lung cancer, ovarian, melanoma, colon, CNS, renal, prostate and breast cancers. The active compounds (most of them nanomolar inhibitors of CA II and CA IV), of types 4.212 to 4.223, belong to both the aromatic and the heterocyclic sulfonamide classes and showed GI50 values (molarity of inhibitor producing a 50 inhibition of tumor cell growth after a 48-h exposure to the drug) in the micromolar range (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000b, 2000c). Better antitumor compounds were then...

Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists with Selectivity for CBX or CB2 Receptors

Cb1 Cb2 Receptors

Although by far the highest concentrations of CB1 and CB1(a) mRNA are to be found in the CNS (Galiegue et al., 1995 Shire et al., 1995), it has been possible, largely by the application of reverse transcription coupled to the polymerase chain reaction, to demonstrate the presence of both these mRNAs in many peripheral tissues. Outside the CNS, the highest levels of human CB1 mRNA are in pituitary gland and immune cells, particularly B-cells and natural killer cells (Galiegue et al., 1995). As detailed by Pertwee (1997), other peripheral tissues of human, dog, rat and or mouse that contain CB1 mRNA include immune tissues (tonsils, spleen, thymus, bone marrow), reproductive tissues (ovary, uterus, testis, vas deferens, prostate gland), gastrointestinal tissues (stomach, colon, bile duct), superior cervical ganglion, heart, lung, urinary bladder and adrenal gland. CB1(a) mRNA is thought to exist as a minor transcript, the ratio of CB1(a) to CB1 mRNA in humans never exceeding 0.2 and, in...

Autoimmune Diseases

Donors as has been shown for uranium miners heavily exposed to alpha radiation 34 , The higher frequency in older male blood donors compared to younger men or women (Table 3) may also be explained in part by a higher prevalence of silent tumors (prostate, lung) in older men. Unfortunately, we had no information about the smoking habits of these blood donors (3) in the risk group of uranium miners without detectable tumor at time of serum analysis, the highest frequency of p53 AAb could be found in patients with a further increase of risk scleroderma patients and miners with large silicotic opacities 35, 36 and (4) in the follow-up of the autoimmune response in two miners, signs of epitope spreading could be observed.

Osteotropism Of Metastatic Dissemination

So far as prostate cancer is concerned, ICTP has been reported to reflect bone metastasis more accurately than other markers, including PSA (prostate-specific antigen). Osteocalcin showed no correlation with metastatic spread (Maeda et al. 1997). In another study, PICP and BA-1p were found to increase with progression as indicated by bone scans. A slight increase in osteocalcin was also reported in patients with remission of metastatic bone lesions, but not related to progression (Koizumi et al. 1995). Obviously more clinical trials are needed to arrive at any firm conclusions. This need is underlined by laboratory work on the differentiation of osteoblastic cells, using conditioned media of the human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells and cell extracts. The effects of the conditioned medium have been studied on two osteoblastic cell lines, namely, a primary cell line derived from foetal rat calvaria and a rat osteosarcoma cell line ROS 17 2.8. The conditioned medium inhibited bone nodule...

Genomic Signature Induced by hCG and Pregnancy

Ing by 42 days postpartum post-hCG treatment. Among these genes were the fatty acid binding protein, the EST Rn.37635 with high homology to BCL7B gene, cathecol-O-methyltransferase, and the EST genes Rn. 5953, Rn.22912, and Rn.4339 (Mailo et al. 2002). The upregulation of cathecol-O-methyltransferase is significant because it can be involved in the conjugation of estradiol and cathecol estrogens, reducing the carcinogenic effect of these hormones. Genes related to the apoptotic pathways, such as testosterone repressed prostate message 2 (TRPM2), interleukin 1 -converting enzyme (ICE), bcl2, bcl-XL, bcl-XS, p53, p21, and c-myc were also upregulated from three to fivefold (Mailo et al. 2002) (Fig. 7). We have shown that the activation of programmed cell death genes occurred through a p53-dependent process, modulated by c-myc and with partial dependence on the bcl2-family related genes (Srivastava et al. 1998, 1999 J. Russo and I.H. Russo 2000). In this cluster were also included...

The Fimbrin Family Of Actinbinding Proteins

Another membrane organelle with which fimbrin might be associated in organising a signal transduction machinery is the caveola. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations, of 50 to 100 nm dimension, that occur in many cell types. Caveolae have been attributed with many functions, notably transport of molecules across endothelia and signal transduction (Lisanti et al. 1995). A major component of caveolae is a 21- to 24-kDa protein called caveolin. Caveolin is said to function as a scaffolding protein that organises the signalling molecules in the caveolae. That caveolae contain essential components of the signal transduction machinery may be deemed to be firmly established. Thus caveolin has been shown to interact directly with signal transduction molecules such G-protein a subunits and the ras protein (Lisanti et al. 1995 Song et al. 1996). The receptors for PDGF and EGF are located in caveolin-rich microdomains, and caveolin has been shown to interact directly with the EGF receptor...

D CD44Hyaluronan Interactions in Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

There is long standing evidence that many solid tumors are enriched in hyaluronan (163). As far back as the beginning of the 20th century there was the description of a 'mucinous substance' associated with malignant breast carcinoma, analogous in nature to that found in umbilical cord (164). Higher levels of hyaluronan are associated with poor prognoses in many cancers including human ovarian, breast and prostate carcinomas (165-168). Coincident with this is the finding that CD44 is often upregulated in several of the same tumor tissues (36,169,170). Given the close association of extracellular matrix receptors participating in adhesion and migration, a predicted facilitatory role for CD44 during invasion and metastasis is well warranted. A necessary question is whether binding to hyaluronan is a necessary component of CD44's positive function in invasion and or metastasis. Bartolazzi et al. (171) demonstrated that stable transfectants of CD44H in human melanoma cell line MC acquired...

Calpains In Cell Proliferation And Apoptosis

Calpains often have been attributed with the ability to induce apoptotic cell death (Figure 21). They are said to be actively associated with T-cell activation and apoptosis (Squier et al. 1994 Sarin et al. 1995 S.J. Martin and Green, 1995). In mature T lymphocytes the induction of apoptosis by TCR is protease dependent (Sarin et al. 1995). The binding of the appropriate ligand of the TNF family to the Fas receptor initiates the activation of caspases and the down-stream protease cascade that leads ultimately to DNA degradation (see below). Dexamethasone is known to induce apoptosis of thymocytes, accompanied by Ca2+-dependent proteolytic activity. This is also accompanied by the autoproteolysis of the capn1 proenzyme, which suggests that calpain activation is taking place. Calpain inhibitors block apoptotic death (Squier et al. 1994). However, inhibitors of calpains have also been found to induce apoptosis. W. Zhu et al. (1995) found that two calpain inhibitors caused apoptosis of...

Human Diseases Linked to Inherited Defects in DNA Repair Genes

A number of abnormalities in nucleotide excision repair including the syndromes xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, and tri-chothiodystrophy are associated with abnormalities of organ function and maintenance, skin disorders, sun and radiation hypersensitivity, malignant transformation, and, to a lesser extent, premature aging with the loss of hematopoietic function and bone structure. These syndromes are also associated with premature cancers, both skin and epithelial cancers such as prostate cancer and lung cancer, and leukemias (de Boer

Expression of Hyaluronan and Hyaluronidase in Cancer Cells of Epithelial Origin

Recent experimental research has brought extensive evidence supporting the idea that 'Has' expression and hyaluronan synthesis in tumor cells promote malignant growth (61). Transfected Has3 gene enhances the malignancy of prostate cancer cells (64). Overrepresentation of the chromosomal region 8q23-24 is common in prostate cancer and forms an unfavorable prognostic factor. This region contains Has2, which is overexpressed in an aggressive prostate cancer cell line (65). Accordingly, prostate cancer cells with high Has2 expression have a higher affinity to bone endothelial cells, and form more metastases (66), while antisense inhibition of Has2 or Has3 reduces metastasis and subcutaneous growth of implanted prostate cancer cells (67). Mouse mammary carcinoma cells with a transfected overexpressed Hasl gene showed higher metastatic activity than their parental cells, while an inactivating mutation in HAS1 reduces metastasis (68). Metastasis is also increased by cell surface hyaluronan...

Pharmacokinetic Properties

The pharmacological properties of the par-enteral penicillins and cephalosporins are summarized in Table 14.5 (147-149). In general, j3-lactam antibiotics penetrate most areas of the body except the eye, prostate (except aztreonam), and uninflamed meninges. Although entry into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is satisfactory with most of the penicillins and carbapenems, only certain cephalo-sporins reach therapeutic levels in the CSF. Protein binding varies from 2 to 98 . The serum half-life of penicillins is short, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 h. The half-life of cephalospo-rins, and especially the third-generation ceph-alosporins, tends to be longer. The half-life of ceftriaxone, the longest of all these agents, is 8 h. Most penicillins, cephalosporins, and aztreonam are removed intact by renal excretion, and those require dose modification in patients with renal impairment. However, the isoxazolyl penicillins (nafcillin and oxacillin), the ureidopenicillins, and a few cephalospo-rins...

Cancer Immune Surveillance

Geneic BALB c mice (Dighe et al., 1994). These results showed that IFN-y had direct effects on tumor cell immunogenicity and played an important role in promoting tumor cell recognition and elimination. In the experiment with MCA-induced tumor formation, compared with wild-type mice, mice lacking sensitivity to either IFN-y (IFNGR-deficient mice) or all IFN family members (signal transducers and activators of transcription Stat 1-deficient mice Statl is the transcription factor that is important in mediating IFNGR signaling) developed tumors more rapidly and with greater frequency when challenged with different doses of the chemical carcinogen MCA. In addition, IFN-y-insensitive mice developed tumors more rapidly than wild-type mice when bred onto a background deficient in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene (Kaplan et al, 1998). IFN-y-insensitive p53- - mice also developed a broader spectrum of tumors compared with mice lacking p53 alone. The importance of this experiment lay in the...

Do Carotenoids Act As Antioxidants In Vivo

If a reduction in a selected biomarker is sought, then the chosen marker must be unique and its reduction cannot be explained by other means. The source of carotenoids used in such studies is important. Lycopene, for example, can be administered as tomato juice, cooked or raw tomatoes, or tomato oleoresin capsules (Table 3), and while the carotenoid may be present in a very high proportion in these preparations, so can other dietary components such as folate, ascorbate, or polyphenols. These constituents may also act to reduce the selected biomarker making interpretation of data difficult. Other dietary components will also have to be closely monitored and accounted for before an association between carotenoids and antioxidant activity in vivo can be confirmed. One important biomarker for oxidative stress and potentially cancer development is 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) (77,78). Several carotenoid studies (Table 3) have used this particular biomarker (in...

Biochemical Mechanism of Apoptosis

Apoptotic body containing well-preserved rough endoplasmic reticulum and four nuclear fragments, which has been phagocytosed by an intraepithelial macrophage in the rat ventral prostate 2 days after castration. (From Kerr and Harmon,172 with permission.) Figure 4-11. Apoptotic body containing well-preserved rough endoplasmic reticulum and four nuclear fragments, which has been phagocytosed by an intraepithelial macrophage in the rat ventral prostate 2 days after castration. (From Kerr and Harmon,172 with permission.)

Immunoinhibition Technique

Immunoinhibition

CK is abundant in tissues that have periods of relative quiescence and then bursts of brisk activity or in cells subjected to differences in oxygen gradient. Expressed in terms of grams of wet tissue, total CK activity is highest in skeletal muscle, at 2500 U g heart has 473 U g and brain has 55 U g (11). A variety of other tissues such as the small intestine, tongue, diaphragm, uterus, and prostate also contain total CK activity, but in lower relative amounts (11). CK activity is virtually absent in most other tissues. Total CK tissue-to-plasma ratio is very high in skeletal muscle and somewhat high (albeit sevenfold less) in myocardium, conferring good performance as a biomarker, because dramatically increased plasma values are observed in association with increased muscle necrosis and trauma. Serum total CK concentrations are dependent on muscle mass, and average levels are higher in men than in women, higher in African Americans than in Caucasians, and higher in younger adults...

Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Epithelium

Avidine Biotine Peroxydase

Figure 2 Hyaluronan in glandular epithelia. Hyaluronan in bovine tissues was visualized using bHABC and avidin biotin-peroxidase technique using DAB as a chromogen. (a) Sublingual gland, (b) lacrimal gland, (c) prostate, (d) seminal vesicle, (e) Cowper's gland, (f) epididymis. Arrows indicate the location of hyaluronan in the glandular epithelial tissues (a-e), while in the epididymis the staining intensity is lower and localized around the basal cells. The arrowhead in (a) indicates mucous glands, which are devoid of hyaluronan. The asterisk in (d) indicates secretion inside the gland, showing intense staining with bHABC. Figure 2 Hyaluronan in glandular epithelia. Hyaluronan in bovine tissues was visualized using bHABC and avidin biotin-peroxidase technique using DAB as a chromogen. (a) Sublingual gland, (b) lacrimal gland, (c) prostate, (d) seminal vesicle, (e) Cowper's gland, (f) epididymis. Arrows indicate the location of hyaluronan in the glandular epithelial tissues (a-e),...

Women Anus Rectum Picture

Anorectal Images

Prostate Prostate Above the anorectal junction, the rectum balloons out and turns posteriorly into the hollow of the coccyx and the sacrum. In the male, the three lobes of the prostate gland surround the urethra. The two lateral lobes lie against the anterior rectal wall, where they are readily palpable as a rounded, heart-shaped structure about 2.5 cm in length. They are separated by a shallow median sulcus or groove, also palpable. The third, or median, lobe is anterior to the urethra and cannot be examined. The seminal vesicles, shaped like rabbit ears above the prostate, are also not normally palpable. e prostate gland is small during boyhood, but between puberty and the e of about 20 years it increases roughly five-fold in size. Starting in about e 5th decade, further enlargement is increasingly common as the gland becomes hyperplastic (see p._).

Approach To Hematuria

Hematuria is divided into glomerular, renal (nonglomerular). and urologic etiologies. Glomerular hematuria typically is associated with significant proteinuria, erythrocyte casts, and dysmorphic RBCs. Renal (nonglomerular) hematuria is secondary to tubulointerstitial. renovascular, and metabolic disorders. Like glomerular hematuria, it often is associated with significant proteinuria however, there are no associated dysmorphic RBCs or erythrocyte casts. Urologic causes of hematuria include tumors, calculi, infections, trauma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Urologic hematuria is distinguished from other etiologies by the absence of proteinuria, dysmorphic RBCs. and erythrocyte casts. 14.2 A 78-year-old male with multiple medical problems presents with dysuria and is found to have microscopic hematuria. His examination is only positive for a very tender and boggy prostate. You next step is B. Treat the prostatitis with I month of antibiotics and reevaluate the patient with a...

Strategies Employed for the Detection of Occult Metastases

Although many other tumor types have subsequently been studied including colon (16-19), prostate (20-23), lung (24-32), esophagus (33-37), and melanoma (38-40). IHC methods are based on the ability of monoclonal antibodies to distinguish between cells of different histogenesis (i.e., epithelial cancer cells vs the hematopoietic cells of the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes). The results indicate that it is possible to identify occult metastatic cancer cells in these compartments prior to their detection by routine histologic analyses, and that the presence of these cells may be an important risk factor for disease recurrence. epithelial and lymphoid cells to identify epithelial cancer cells. RT-PCR entails the isolation and reverse-transcription of epithelial-specific messenger RNA to complementary-DNA (cDNA), and thereafter, involves PCR-based amplification of the cDNA template between specific primers. This results in a several thousand-fold amplification of the...

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs NSAIDs

For DNA that is being replicated proficiency testing - a method of monitoring accurate outcome in which test samples from an external source are analyzed and results compared to those of reference laboratories and scored for accuracy a means of verifying the accuracy of tests can include participation in an external assessment program, splitting samples with another laboratory, or blind testing of materials with known values progesterone - steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum and placenta that prepares the endometrium for blastocyst implantation and maintains pregnancy prognosis - prediction of the course and end of a disease and estimate of chance for recovery prostatism - the condition of partial or complete blockage of the urethra due to an enlarged prostate gland

Afferent parasympathetic fibres

Visceral afferent fibres from the heart, lung and the alimentary tract are conveyed in the vagus nerve. Sacral afferents are conveyed in the pelvic splanchnic nerves and are responsible for visceral pain experienced in the bladder, prostate, rectum and uterus. The reference of pain from these structures to the sacral area, buttocks and posterior aspect of the thighs is explained by the similar segmental supply of the sacral dermatomes.

The male urethra Fig 87b

The prostatic urethra (1.25in (3 cm)), as its name implies, traverses the prostate. Its posterior wall bears a longitudinal elevation termed the urethral crest, on each side of which is a shallow depression, the prostatic sinus, into which the 15-20 prostatic ducts empty. At about the middle of the crest is a prominence termed the colliculus seminalis (verumontanum) into which opens the prostatic utricle. This is a blind tract, about 5 mm long, running downwards from the substance of the median lobe of the prostate. It is believed to represent the male equivalent of the vagina, a remnant of the paramesonephric duct (see page 148). On either side of the orifice of the prostatic utricle open the ejaculatory ducts, formed by the union of the duct of the seminal vesicle and the terminal part of the vas deferens.

Biological Activity and Side Effects

Mitoxantrone is used in first-line therapy for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) (198), and along with cytosine arabinoside, is suggested as salvage therapy in AML and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) (199). I n combination with a steroid, it is the drug of choice for palliative treatment of hormone-resistant prostate cancer (200). It is also an effective treatment for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, but the duration of treatment is lim the anthrapyrazoles. Showalter and colleagues at Parke-Davis, in search of less car-diotoxic agents, developed these initially. They laid down the basic SAR, showing that activity was maximal with alkylamino side-chains at the N-2 and C-5 positions with two to three carbon spacers between proximal and distal nitrogens and showed they induced less oxygen consumption than doxorubicin in the rat liver microsomal system (216).These compounds bind very tightly to DNA by intercalation, with association constants around 2 X 10s M 1 (217). They were...

Natomy And Physiol

Inguinal Hernia Physical Exam

The testes produce spermatozoa and testosterone. Testosterone stimulates the pubertal growth of the male genitalia, prostate, and seminal vesicles. It also stimulates the development of masculine secondary sex characteristics, including the beard, body hair, musculoskeletal development, and enlarged larynx with the associated low-pitched voice. The vas deferens, a cordlike structure, begins at the tail of the epididymis, ascends within the scrotal sac, and passes through the external inguinal ring on its way to the abdomen and pelvis. Behind the bladder it is joined by the duct from the seminal vesicle and enters the urethra within the prostate gland. Sperm thus pass from the testis and the epididymis through the vas deferens into the urethra. Secretions from the vasa deferentia, the seminal vesicles, and the prostate all contribute to the semen. Within the scrotum each vas is closely associated with blood vessels, nerves, and muscle fibers. These structures make up the spermatic cord.

Animal Studies On Pufas And Cancer Metastasis

Prostate cancers The antimetastatic effects of PUFAs in prostate cancer cells have been demonstrated, in vitro. Oleic acid (OA) and EPA enhanced DU-145 prostate tumor cell proliferation at 0.004 and 0.04 mM for up to 4 days (108). However, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), GLA and arachidonic acid (AA) suppressed cell proliferation under the same conditions, possibly as a result of inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. Therefore, the absence of EFAs and or the excess amount of non-EFAs, such as oleic acid, may affect invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer (93,94). In vivo, the matter appears to be complicated. In animal studies, groups receiving 23 fat diets containing 18 corn oil (CO)-5 linseed oil (18 2n-6 FA-rich), or 18 linseed oil (LO)-5 CO (18 3n-3 FA-rich), had a higher tumour grow rate that the group receiving 18 menhaden oil (MO)-5 CO (20 5 and 22 6n-3 FA-rich). This inhibitory effect of the high-fish diet was due, at least in part, to a reduction of...

Producing Sperm Cells

Secondary Spermatocyte

After sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules, they move into a long, coiled tube called the epididymis, where the sperm gain the ability to move themselves by using their flagellum. During ejaculation, the sperm are propelled from the epididymis to the vas deferens, a long tube that joins with the ejaculatory duct at a gland called the seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicle produces a fructose-rich fluid that helps supply the sperm with energy they will need for propelling themselves. Sperm and these associated fluids are called semen. The sperm then move along the ejaculatory duct and pass through the prostate gland located at the base of the bladder. Within the prostate gland, the ejaculatory duct merges with the urethra coming from the urinary bladder. At ejaculation, the urethra carries the semen out of the body through the penis.

S100A4 Expression and Metastatic Potential of Cancers

In addition to its wide distribution in normal tissues, high levels of S100A4 have also been recorded in human as well as in murine tumours with high metastatic potential (Ebralidze et al. 1990). A clear correlation seems to exist between the level of S100A4 mRNA and protein and the metastatic potential of Dunning rat prostate carcinoma cell lines (Ke et al. 1997). Indeed, some of this evidence might be construed as suggesting that S100A4 (FSP1) is a developmentally regulated gene. The aberrant expression of S100A4 in neoplasia could be viewed as reflecting abnormalities in the process of de-differentiation associated with cancer development and progression.

The NCI60 Cell Line and GNF Gene Expression Atlas Ratios

Only one gene from our core region, MX2, is represented in the GNF dataset, this shows low level expression throughout the different brain regions, with strongest expression in whole blood (data not shown). However if we expand the D21S1245-D21S1852 interval by 1 Mb on either side to include other flanking genes, much more data becomes available. Figure 9.7A shows a view of a selection of the available tissues, including all neuronal tissues for 15 genes across the wider locus. One gene, Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4-no. 37576), is immediately apparent with a high level of expression in a wide range of neuronal tissues, including the thalamus. By clicking on the PCP4 gene number in the expression view in HGB, a detailed expression profile of the gene in all available tissues is launched into a new window (Figure 9.7B). This shows that the expression of this gene is primarily limited to the brain, thyroid and prostate glands, with highest levels of expression in the caudate nucleus and...

Comprehension Questions

The American Urological Association (AllA) and United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend annual prostate cancer screening with digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). C. Compared to DRE alone, the combination of DRE and PSA increases the sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer screening. D. Transrectal ultrasound offers the greatest sensitivity and specificity for detecting prostate cancer. E. For healthy men older than age 70 years, the AUA discourages any prostate cancer screening.

Osteocalcin In Bone Metabolism And Osteotropism Of Cancer

Osteocalcin is a noncollagenous protein. It is the most abundant matrix protein of bone and dentine (Price, 1992). It is regarded as a marker of bone turnover and metabolism, where bone resorption and formation are coupled. Osteocalcin is syn-thesised exclusively by osteoblasts and secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM) during bone mineralisation. It is released also during osteoclastic degradation. Therefore, it is considered to be a marker of bone formation when formation and resorption of bone are uncoupled (J.P. Brown et al. 1984 Delmas et al. 1985, 1986 R.H. Christenson, 1997). Osteocalcin expression in developing chick and rat embryos coincides with the onset of mineralisation of the bone and hence it is considered to play a role in this process (Hauschka et al. 1989). Osteocalcin functions as a chemoattractant for osteoblast progenitor cells (Mundy and Poser, 1983). Also, bone resorption is poor under conditions of osteocalcin deficiency (Lian et al. 1984). These...

Ca Inhibition As An Approach To Anticancer Therapy

Supuran and collaborators, motivated by the emerging role of CAs in cancer and by the possibility of using them as therapeutic targets, synthesized and tested several hundreds of potent sulfonamide CAIs containing the aromatic or heterocyclic moiety, or both (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000a, 2000b, 2000c Scozzafava and Supuran 2000 Supuran et al. 2001). These compounds were subjected to screening for their ability to inhibit the growth of tumor cells in vitro by using a panel of 60 cancer cells lines. The screening performed at the National Cancer Institute in the U.S. led to the identification of lead compounds that exhibited considerably higher inhibitory properties (in the low micromolar range) than did classical sulfonamides (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000a, 2000b, 2000c). These leads were used to design novel classes of derivatives with enhanced antitumor activities by using the tail approach, in which new tails were attached to precursor sulfonamides (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000c,...

Nuclear Matrix Proteins

The NMP22 test kit is marketed by Matritech (Newton, Mass). Several new NMPs have been developed by Matritech for colon, breast (NMP66), and prostate cancer. Although the initial results are promising, further studies are needed to confirm the clinical utilities of the NMPs. Recently urinary NMP22 levels were found to be useful in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer in patients with a tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy but had no diagnostic value in patients with urinary diversion using a bowel segment (24).

Carotenoids and the Insulin Like Growth Factor System

The identification of risk factors for various types of cancer can lead to appropriate preventive measures. The importance of the sex steroids estradiol and testosterone for the development and progression of breast and prostate cancers, respectively, is well known. Recently, a similar role has been proposed for insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Chan et al. (102) found a strong positive association between IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk in participants of the Physicians' Health Study. An equally strong association between the level of this growth factor and breast cancer risk of premenopausal women was also reported in a case control study within the Nurses' Health Study cohort (103) and, more recently, for colorectal cancer (104). Thus, plasma IGF-I levels may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk for some major cancers, similar to the way in which cholesterol levels predict the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As already discussed (Sec. II.C), there is an...

Marbps And Disease Manifestation

Diet Cure Lipomas

The abnormal levels of MARBPs, apart from their altered cellular distribution, seems to govern the progression of proliferative diseases. Studies to identify the nuclear matrix binding proteins associated with aggressive cancer phenotype have lead to the identification of PARP, Ku, High mobility group proteins (I Y), NMP, SAF-A B that have binding affinity to double stranded BURs. The expression of these proteins is dramatically increased upon malignant transformation and marks the advanced cancer phenotype leading to metastasis. Unlike other MARBPs that are highly expressed at the onset of malignant transformation, SMAR1 level is downregulated in breast cancer derived lines, which may be explained in part to its regulation of Cyclin D1 gene, a hallmark of breast and prostate cancer (Rampalli et al., 2005). In most cases of cancer, there is gene duplication or loss of transcriptional control of this gene that leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, leading to cancer. We have shown...

Ghb With Synthetic Glycogen For Cancerous Cells

Monoclonal, in Waldenstrom's macroglob-ulinemia, 481 Immunometric assays, for luteinizing hormone, 445 Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), for prostate specific antigen, 492, 493 Immunosuppressive drugs, therapeutic monitoring of, 516 Inborn errors of metabolism, tests for, Ionophores, in potentiometry, 115 Ion-selective electrodes for calcium, 417 for electrolytes, 221-224 in potentiometry, 114-116, 116f in spectrophotometry, 103 Iontophoresis, in sweat chloride test, 365 IRMA (immunoradiometric assay), for prostate specific antigen, 492, 493

TNFa and Cancer Cachexia

The serum level of TNF-a was significantly higher in patients with advanced-stage cancer than in healthy individuals 32 . A significant inverse correlation was shown between the detectability of serum TNF-a levels and serum albumin levels, haemoglobin levels, body mass index, and performance status in 110 patients with prostate cancer 33 . In this study, patients with elevated serum TNF-a levels had a significantly shorter median time of survival than did patients in whom serum TNF-a was undetectable.

Tumours as Source of PIF

The 24-kDa factor was initially isolated from the murine cachexia-inducing MAC16 tumour 11 , but it was also found to be present in the urine of patients with carcinoma of the pancreas, breast, ovary, lung, colon, rectum, and liver in whom the rate of weight loss was to about 1 kg per month 16 . Patients who were weight-stable or in whom the rate of weight loss was 1 kg month showed no evidence for excretion, even though they had the same tumour types. Subjects with weight loss associated with conditions other than cancer, such as sepsis, multiple injuries, major surgery, and sleeping sickness, showed no evidence for urinary secretion of the 24-kDa material, even though the rate of weight loss was higher than in cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry with the MAC16 monoclonal antibody showed that the 24-kDa material was present in the cytoplasm of tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, and a correlation was obtained between expression in tumours, detection in urine, and weight loss in...

Hyaluronan in Adhesion Migration and Invasion of Cancer

In cancers such as prostate cancer, which specifically metastasise to the bone, the circulating tumour cells undergo an adhesion process to the endothelial cells lining the bone marrow vasculature (54) followed by transmigration through the endothelial cell barrier and subsequent establishment in the stroma. Interestingly, HA has already been shown in murine anterior prostate gland to be a prerequisite for androgen stimulated ductal branching morphogenesis (55). Further to this, the role of HA in prostate cancer cell adhesion to bone marrow derived endothelial cell line (BMEC-1) has been demonstrated (56). In this study, highly metastatic PC3 and PC3M-LN4 showed a rapid adherence to BMEC-1 but not to endothelial cells derived from human vein. Adhesion was inhibited by the addition of excess HA or by pre-treatment of cells with hyaluronidase which digested away pericellular HA. Of note, pericellular HA was also correlated with increased level of HA synthesis and HA synthase expression...

Epigenetic Basis Of Disease

Ezh2 is a polycomb group protein contains EED and Enhancer ofZeste homologs 1 and 2 which recruit HDACs and thus bring about repression by the cooperative methylation and deacetylation. Ezh2 is over expressed in prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death in males second only to lung cancer. Ezh2 has been observed to be over expressed in hormone refractory metastasis prostate cancer (Varambally et al., 2002). Dysregulated expression of Ezh2 is involved in the progression of prostate cancer as well as acts as a marker that distinguishes indolent prostate cancer from those at risk of lethal progression. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in women EZH2 protein levels are strongly associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. Overexpression of EZH2 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cell lines promotes anchorage-independent growth and cell invasion (Kleer et al., 2003). is enough evidence to suggest their role both directly and indirectly with...

Basic Facts About Cancer

The highest mortality rates are seen with lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers (Fig. 1-1). Over 570,000 people die each year in the United States from these and other cancers. More people die of cancer in 1 year in the United States than the number of people killed in all the wars in which the United States was involved in the twentieth century (Fig. 1-2). Prostate 232,090 33 Prostate

Detection Of A Malignant Disease

From all the reports on p53 autoantibodies it seems to come up that p53 autoantibodies are in general associated with a malignant disease, whereas, healthy blood donors are rarely positive for p53 autoantibodies. Two individuals were found to express p53 autoantibodies although no tumor was detected. Both individuals were heavy smokers and diagnosed for chronic cough or a benign obstructive tracheal tumor. Both developed lung cancer within 5 or 15 months, respectively 27 . In a study of patients with prostate carcinoma, a healthy control patient was also positive for p53 autoantibodies 28 , Later, it turned out that this patient died from an undetected lung cancer. Thus, these studies might indicate that p53 autoantibodies may be early markers for malignancy and that this type of analysis allows for the detection of an unknown cancerous malignancies. However, there are also reports that p53 autoantibodies were found in patients with nontumorous diseases such as autoimmune diseases....

Other Tissue Autoantibodies

Tion between neoplasia and autoimmunity results from increased incidence of both conditions in senescence. In our preliminary investigation 61 we studies 139 patients (55 of whom were aged 60 years and younger, and 84 were older than 60 years) suffering from a variety of malignant tumors for ANA, RF and antiery-throcyte antibodies (Coomb's test). There was no significant difference between the incidences of ANA and RF in the young patients and in the young controls and similarly, there was no significant difference between the incidences of ANA and RF in the elderly cancer patients and in the elderly controls. Our results suggest that the reported high incidence of ANA and RF in malignancies is a result of the old age of these patients rather than the tumor itself. However, the incidence of antierythrocyte antibodies was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. This study was later extended to test a large battery of autoantibodies and the malignancies were grouped...

Male reproductive system

The organ responsible for carrying the sperm cells to the female is the penis. Within the penis, the sperm cells are carried in a tube, the urethra. During periods of sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect as blood fills its spongelike tissues. The sperm cells are mixed with secretions from the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and Cowper's glands. These secretions and the sperm cells constitute the semen.

Screening for polyps and colorectal cancer

Clinicians should discuss screening issues related to prostate cancer to promote health for men, and provide screening recommendations to both men and women for detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous colonic polyps. Prostate cancer is the leading cancer diagnosed in men in the United States, and the second leading cause of death in North American men. Ethnicity and age strongly influence risk. African American men have the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, and Asian and native American men have the lowest rates. Sixty percent of all new cases and approximately 80 of deaths occur in men age 70 or older. Also at risk are men with a family history of prostate cancer. To educate patients about prostate cancer, clinicians must be knowledgeable about several issues related to general screening of patients without symptoms. Prognosis is most favorable when the cancer is confined to the prostate, and worsens with extracapsular or metastatic spread. Autopsy...

Burning with urination

Many questions concerning symptoms related to the anorectal area and the prostate have been addressed in other chapters. For example, you will need to ask if there has been any change in the pattern of bowel function or the size or caliber of the stools. What about diarrhea or constipation You will

Physiological Role of Desacyl Ghrelin

Pressing des-acyl ghrelin showed small pheno-type, which is not attributed to poor nutritional condition. It has been found that overexpressed des-acyl ghrelin acts in the pituitary and in the hypothalamus in transgenic mice, suggesting a role of des-acyl ghrelin in the regulation of GH secretion 18 . Moreover, recent studies indicated that ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin exhibit similar GHS-R-independent biological activities, including a cytoprotective effect on cultured cardiomy-ocytes and endothelial cells 19 , the inhibition of cell proliferation in human breast and prostate cancer lines 20, 21 , the reduction of glycerol released from rat epididymal adipocytes 22 , and the promotion of adipogenesis directly in vivo in bone marrow fat 23 . Overall, these findings suggest that the action of des-acyl ghrelin is mediated by an as-yet unknown receptor that is different from GHS-R1a.

Michael Leahy W Archie Bleyer

15.6.3 Prostate Cancer 255 Unlike most of the other chapters in this book, which essentially deal with single disease entities, this chapter covers several completely distinct conditions. Each of these entities present much more commonly in other age groups. For example, Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma) usually presents in childhood, while renal cell carcinoma (RCC), transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium, adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and carcinoma of the Fallopian tubes, endome-trium, and uterus (including cervical carcinoma), present much more frequently in later adult life. It is not possible within the scope of this chapter to describe each or any of these tumors in detail and the reader is referred to standard texts or recent reviews in the literature for further reading. However, when reading those texts, it must be remembered that they apply primarily to a different age group. This chapter will therefore concentrate principally on comparing and contrasting the...

Telomeres And Direct Proof Of Their

Many reports have appeared suggesting a telomere-independent mechanism of cellular senescence is present in epidermal keratinocytes (39,40) and in mammary (39), adenoid (41), thyroid (42), and prostate (43) epithelial cells. The investigators who reported these findings found that inactivation of the p16 pRB pathway (by methylation of the p16 gene or by expression of viral oncogenes such as the human papilloma virus protein E7) was required before telomerase could immortalize these epithelial cells. Many of these epithelial cells were grown in a chemically defined medium in which the proliferative life span of 10-20 doublings is much less than the approximately 50 doublings that are seen when keratinocytes are grown on feeder layers (44). We have shown that keratinocytes can be immortalized by telomerase alone without inactivating p16 when grown in the more hospitable environment provided by feeder layers (which produce additional growth factors, extracellular matrix and or epithelial...

Summary and Conclusions

Cell shape changes, and provide a suitable environment and signals that facilitate re-epithelialization during wound healing. In contrast, many simple non-stratified epithelia are completely negative in hyaluronan staining or express a limited signal on the basolateral surface. However, injury or dispersal of these cells, for example those in the intestinal and renal tubular epithelia, upregulates the expression of CD44 and Has2, and hyaluronan staining appears on the injured cells. Malignant transformation can also turn on hyaluronan synthesis in epithelia normally devoid of detectable hyaluronan and promote cancer progression by enhancing cell proliferation, migration, survival from apoptosis, and possibly through enhanced tumor angiogenesis. Hyaluronan from or through the epithelium of prostate and other male accessory sex glands accompanies ejaculated spermatozoa, which are also greeted by hyaluronan in the fallopian tubes. Hyaluronan provided by these epithelia may have a...

Genital and Urinary Tracts and Mesothelial Cells as Hyaluronan Producers

The expression of hyaluronan in the simple epithelia of the male reproductive tract and its accessory glands is more active than that in the gut and intestine. Distal epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, and Cowper's gland show hyaluronan located mainly on the lower basolateral surface, but with little on the apical surface (Fig. 2c-f) (38). In these epithelia, the location of CD44 correlates with that of hyaluronan on the basolateral surfaces. This distribution suggests that hyaluronan is mostly synthesized and remains bound on the basal side of the adjacent epithelial cells. However, the lumen of the seminal vesicle, prostate and Cowper's gland (Fig. 2c-e) contain hyaluronan, suggesting that it is either secreted from the apical surface, or passes the cell junctions in the lateral sides of the cells. There is an extensive pool of hyaluronan in the underlying stroma of these glands, a potential source of the epithelial and lumenal hyaluronan. Interestingly, testis...

Recommended Daily Intakes

The usual therapeutic dose range is 15-45 mg day.10 Carotene supplements derived from natural sources are preferable. They contain, along with beta-carotene, a mixture of carotenoids, including lutein, alpha-carotene, and lycopene, and may have additional health benefits. For example, ly-copene is a potent antioxidant11 and may decrease the risk of prostate cancer and cataract.

Statistics for Assessing Expression

Table 8.2 Comparative EST Counts for Five Genes Sequenced from Normal Prostate, Stage B2 Cancer, Stage C Cancer, and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) cDNA Libraries Prostate - All Other Table 8.2 Comparative EST Counts for Five Genes Sequenced from Normal Prostate, Stage B2 Cancer, Stage C Cancer, and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) cDNA Libraries Prostate - All Other

Chemoattractant For Monocytes

The identification and cloning of MCP-1 provided an opportunity to screen tumors for their expression of a bona fide monocyte-specific chemoattractant. Table 1 lists several types of cell lines, tumor explants, and primary tumor tissues that express MCP-1. Although the list appears to be extensive, MCP-1 expression is not a universal property of tumor cells since there are many tumor types that do not express MCP-1, e.g., prostate carcinoma and many lung cancers (44).

Common Types Of Cancer

Some cancers, such as those affecting the brain, breasts, or prostate gland, do not have clear connections to lifestyle or the environment, but appear to be a consequence of normal physiology and cellular biochemistry. Our bodies, complex machines that they are, simply start to The deadliness of a cancer varies depending on the tissue that is affected. Prostate cancer struck more than 200,000 American men in 2003, but the mortality was only 13 percent (that is, 28,900 men died of prostate cancer in the same year). By contrast, brain tumors have a mortality of 72 percent, and lung cancer is even worse, with a mortality of 88 percent. But the deadliest of all cancers are those that appear in the pancreas, where the mortality is a numbing 98 percent (see table on page 3).

Can Replicative Senescence Act To Promote Cancer

Many more studies are needed in this area. First, the variety of tissues and the range of donor ages that have been surveyed so far is very small, and it is not possible yet to determine whether the occurrence of SA-cells is an inevitable part of normal aging or alternatively evidence of a pathological process. Studies in the prostate, liver, and vascular endothelium are suggestive of an accumulation of SA-(3-gal+ cells in disease states 100-102. Second, more studies are needed to show whether SA-(3-gal+ cells are generated by telomere shortening or by some other process. The suspicion that in some cases telomere shortening is not involved exists for retinal pigmented epithelial cells, because these cells are mostly postmitotic in adult life 103. These cells may have entered the senescent state as a form of stress-induced senescence as a result of exposure to oxidative damage.

Serial Stochastic Events

The interpretation of carcinogenesis as a multistage process presents at least two non-mutually exclusive explanations for the increasing incidence of cancer with age. The first and simplest is that the tissues of an older person will have, over time, sustained the serial stochastic events involved in carcinogenesis. Accordingly, the cancers more prevalent among the aged, such as prostate, colon or breast cancer, are those involving a greater number of steps. In contrast, this hypothesis would predict that tumors more common in young people (lymphoma, leukemia, neuroblastoma, etc.) would require fewer steps in the progression from normal to the malignant state.

Central Neural Mediation of Cytokine Induced Anorexia

The major hypothalamic detection site for blood-derived signals. Yet, severing the ARC from PVN or its connections with the PVN only slightly attenuated peripheral IL-1p-induced anorexia 35 , indicating that the ARC is involved but not necessary for peripheral IL-1p-induced anorexia. Several lines of evidence 20 implicate activation of hindbrain to forebrain aminergic neurons in the feeding suppression and hypermetabolic effects of circulating IL-1p. IL-1p-induced anorexia may in part be mediated through prostaglandin E2-dependent activation of serotoninergic neurons originating in the raphe nuclei and projecting to the hypothalamus 36 . In line with this idea, systemic administration of a serotonin (5-HT2c) receptor antagonist and microinjection of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetraline (8-OH-DPAT) directly into the raphe nucleus both markedly attenuated the feeding-suppressive effect of peripherally injected IL-1-p 3 . Interestingly, anorexia induced...

COX2 Selective Inhibitors Celecoxib Rofecoxib and Valdecoxib

COX-2 is a bifunctional enzyme possessing both cyclo-oxygenase and peroxidase activities. Selective COX-2 inhibitors inhibit PG biosynthesis (anti-COX-2 activity) but do not, or only partially, affect the peroxidase activity of COX, which can generate proximate carcinogens. In experimental animals, selective inhibitors of COX-2 such as cele-coxib reduce the formation of head and neck, col-orectal, stomach, lung, breast and prostate tumours. In addition to preventing tumorigenesis, selective COX-2 inhibitors suppress the growth of established tumours. A selective COX-2 inhibitor was also observed to decrease the number and size of metastases. In most studies, selective COX-2 inhibitors decrease the rate of tumour growth rather than cause a reduction in tumour size 124-126 . Therefore, significant preclinical evidence strongly supports the potential role for these inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

Psa Ca 125 Ca 199 And

In Taiwan, a study screened a total of 41,495 asymptomatic individuals for cancer by measuring multiple tumor markers (28). The purpose of the screening was to find cancer among asymptomatic individuals. Included in the panel of tumor markers for screening were a-fetoprotein (AFP), CA 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, CEA, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

Proteinases And Their Inhibitor 61 MMP2 and

Elevated MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been found in many human cancers such as breast, colon, prostate, and ovarian and have been associated with increased metastatic potential. They may be secreted by tumor cell themselves or secreted by host cells within the tumor stroma (25).

Dna And Protein Array Antibody Array

Using a high-throughput proteomic classification system, Adam et al. (65) provided an accurate and innovative approach for the early detection diagnosis of prostate cancer. A protein biochip surface enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry approach coupled with an artificial intelligence learning algorithm was used to generate protein profiling with proteomic patterns that differentiate prostate cancer from noncancer cohorts. Feroze-Merzoug et al. (66) also has measured the gene expression patterns (both mRNA and protein expression profiling) to differentiate between normal prostate and prostate tumor, and between tumors at different stages.

Suppression of Autoimmune Disease by Regulatory Cells from Donors with or Without the Relevant SelfAg

In view of differential suppression of autoimmune prostatitis (AIP) and autoimmune thyroiditis by T cells from Ag-positive vs Ag-negative cell donors (described below), how do we explain their equal suppression of AOD Our interpretation is that even if the regulatory capacities of male and female CD4+CD25+ T cells for AOD suppression are different, they are equalized when the cells encounter the endogenous ovarian Ag in the young d3tx host. Indeed, we have shown that ovarian Ags (mater and ZP3) are expressed from birth and have the capacity to stimulate T cells on day 3 (Alard et al. 2001). This is also exemplified by the process of diversified autoAb response that depends on de novo B cell response to endogenous ovarian Ag. Immunized female mice with a ZP3 peptide that contains T but not native B epitope (in CFA) elicited Ab response to a distant native ZP3 B cell epitope within 7 days, 2 days after detectable response to the ZP3 T cell epitope (Lou et al. 1996). Other examples of...

The Rectal Examination

The rectal examination of the young child can be performed with the child either in the side-lying or lithotomy position. For many young children, the lithotomy position is less threatening and easier to perform. Have the child lie on the back with the knees and hips flexed and the legs abducted. Drape the child from the waist down. Provide frequent reassurance during the examination, and ask the child to breathe in and out through the mouth to relax. Spread the buttocks and observe the anus. You can use your lubricated gloved index finger, even in small children. Palpate the abdomen with your other hand, both to distract the child and to note the abdominal structures between your hands. The prostate gland is not palpable in young boys.

Risk Of Second Malignancies

In an epidemiological study of HCL in Los Angeles County in 1990, it was noted that patients with a history of HCL were more than twice as likely as other cancer patients to have multiple cancer diagnoses.5 Since that time, multiple studies have confirmed that HCL patients have an increased risk for secondary malignancies. The rationale for this observation is probably dual. The primary treatment of HCL involves the use of nucleoside analogs, which lead to prolonged immunosuppression, with lower than normal numbers of CD4+ cells for more than 3.5 years.1819 This prolonged immunosuppression leads to an increase in second malignancies.19 Cheson et al. looked at patients with either chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or HCL who had undergone treatment with Nucleoside Analogs and found a total of 150 secondary cancers in 146 patients. Most of these cases were solid tumors, with a higher than expected frequency of prostate cancer.20 In a study from British Columbia, Au et al. reported that...

Markers of Angiogenesis

Markers of angiogenesis have to be specific, accessible, and abundant if they are to serve as targets for therapeutic or diagnostic intervention. To date, only few good quality markers of angiogenesis located either on ECs or in the modified ECM are known. Most existing candidate markers are also expressed in some normal tissues, thus limiting their usefulness. Systematic ex vivo investigations of tumor endothelial structures using proteomic techniques 42, 43 , biopanning of phage display libraries 44-50 , or transcriptomic techniques, such as serial analysis of gene expression 51 , are revealing new candidate tumor endothelial markers. Their validation, however, requires the generation of specific monoclonal antibodies, a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis, and quantitative biodistribution studies in animal models of angiogenesis-related diseases. Markers for angiogenesis located on the cell surface of tumor endothelial cells are the integrins av 53 52, 53 , endoglin 54 ,...

Luminal and Endothelial Markers

Finally, an angiogenic marker that was discovered from cancer studies is prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Commonly used as a clinical indicator of prostatic hypertrophy, this glycoprotein has an increased expression level in angiogenic vessels supporting tumors (57). Despite this preliminary association, the functional significance of PSMA remains elusive.

Hyaluronan and Angiogenesis

A key aspect of tumour establishment and growth involves angiogenesis. Without neovascularization, essential nutrients cannot be supplied to solid tumours, preventing their ability to proliferate, invade or metastasise. HA has been shown to have an important role in vasculature and the angiogenic process (48,82). West and Kumar (83) first showed that HA oligosaccharides increased angiogenesis and that administration of high MW HA inhibited this process (82). This may appear paradoxical to findings that show the production of high MW HA by HAS (84) is correlated to tumour progression, and that inhibition of HAS reduced prostate tumour vascularity (85). More recently, some of the key intermediates such as the tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane recruitment of PLC-g 1 were shown to be activated in bovine aortic endothelial cells by HA oligos (86). There is little doubt that the involvement of HA in the angiogenic process is complex and requires further work for clarification. However,...

Clinical Indications of Hyaluronan in Cancer

The increased accumulation of HA may thus provide an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer. The molecular basis for increased HA was not precisely defined but the action of growth factors and direct cellular contact with local mesenchymal cells was thought likely to have a role. Interestingly this is supported by previous studies which have shown that murine ovarian cancer cells stimulate HA production on murine mesenteric surfaces and tumour cell clumps (28). The evaluation of epithelial ovarian tumours was extended further by Hiltunen et al. (21), where HA accumulation alone, without hyaluronidase activation (the enzyme family which breaks down HA), was shown to correlate with the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer. In a prostate cancer study Posey et al. (25) evaluated the potential of HA and the Prostate cancer hyaluronidase family member, hyal-1, as prognostic markers in 70 clinical prostate cancer samples using a biotinylated HA-binding protein and anti-hyal-1 antibody....

Hyaluronan in the Stroma of Epithelial Malignancies

The connective tissue stroma that surrounds most epithelial cancers is enriched in hyaluronan. Examples of tumors with a hyaluronan 'halo' include breast (27), prostate (53), ovarian (54), lung (33), gastric (29), colon (36), thyroid (55), and skin squamous cell (56) carcinomas. These hyaluronan deposits can serve as strong indicators of unfavorable prognosis for the patients (27,33,53-55,57) and probably contribute to the spreading of the malignant epithelial cells. Several mechanisms are likely to contribute to the hyaluronan accumulation. The malignant epithelial cells secrete (growth) factors, like TGFb (58), that stimulate the synthesis of hyaluronan by the stromal cells in a paracrine manner (59,60).

S100A4 in Human Breast Cancer

Some of the problems associated with the observed lack of inverse correlation between nm23 NDP kinase expression and metastatic progression might be due to the tacit assumption that NDP kinase function and the putative metastasis-suppressor properties are interrelated and inseparable. Contrary to this, it has been argued that these properties can indeed be dissociated. H.Y. Lee and Lee (1999) transfected a cDNA coding for a mutant form of nm23-H1 that lacked NDP kinase activity into human prostate carcinoma cells. Nonetheless, the transfectant cells showed reduced invasive ability, in the same way as cells that had been transfected with wild-type cDNA. Although these observations do suggest that the two properties of nm23 are dissociable, conceptually the putative metastasis-suppressor function of nm23 becomes even harder to appreciate.

The Role of Sex Hormones

The sex hormones exert their varied effects by promoting cell growth and cell division. As long as the cells in the target organs are healthy, with checkpoint monitors intact, there is no problem. But if a crucial gene or set of genes is defective, and the cell is being bombarded with signals to proliferate, the situation can become serious very quickly. This is the reason why cancers of the breast, uterus, ovaries, and prostate are so common and so dangerous. Cancers such as these are a natural consequence of reproductive physiology, and treatments often try to reduce the levels of sex hormones to withdraw the stimulus to the tumor cells. As discussed more fully in the next chapter, this approach is not a pleasant experience, involving as it often does the removal of the ovaries, to eliminate the synthesis of estrogen, or the testes, to block production of testosterone. The relationship between steroid hormones and cancer production introduces serious concerns regarding hormone...

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Vitamin A is one of nature's primary anticancer substances, particularly in the skin and mucous membranes. Ample intakes of vitamin A have been shown to protect against cancers of the lung, bladder, prostate, larynx, esophagus, stomach, and colon. Vitamin A can prevent precancerous lesions, such as oral leukoplakia (white patches on the lips and mouth often found in smokers) and cervical dysplasia, from developing and may produce regression and disappearance of these disorders.15 As a cancer treatment, large doses of retinoic acid may reduce growth and recurrence of certain forms of skin cancer.16 As an antioxidant, beta-carotene helps provide protection against damage from many xenobiotics (such as polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs ). It may also reduce the risk of skin cancer associated with exposure to sunlight6 and radiation.2

Vas deferens ductus deferens

To the ischial tuberosity then turns medially to the base of the bladder. Here it joins the more laterally placed seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct which traverses the prostate to open into the prostatic urethra at the veru-montanum on either side of the utricle.

Cell Surface Adhesion Molecules

From the evidence discussed so far, it would be natural to assume that well differentiated, non-invasive and non-metastatic carcinomas will express normal or relatively high levels of cadherins, whereas tumours that are poorly differentiated and possess a high metastatic potential will not. This correlation has been shown to hold true for several tumour types including squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (49), lung cancer (50), prostate and bladder carcinomas (51, 52), pancreatic cancer (53) and lobular breast cancer (29). patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (61), bladder cancer (51), gastric tumours (62) and prostate cancer (63, 64).

HGF in tumourstromal interactions

Host stromal influence on epithelial neoplasia and malignant behavior of carcinoma cells have been noted in various types of cancers, including cancers in prostate, stomach, skin, oral cavity, mammary gland, lung, and colon (215-217). In vivo growth of certain carcinoma cells was markedly accelerated by a broad spectrum of fibroblasts, and both in vitro and in vivo invasiveness of carcinoma cells was induced by the coexistence of stromal fibroblasts (218-221). Thus host stroma-derived factor(s) is one key molecule that regulates tumour cell invasion and metastasis. In addition to stromal involvement in tumour malignancy, stromal alterations occur during malignant progression of tumours. The presence of activated fibroblasts are seen in close proximity to tumour tissues (216). Therefore, local and mutual interactions between tumour cells and stromal cells are of particular importance in regulating extracellular matrix degradation, migration, and invasion of tumour cells. Although...

Dietary Nutritional Factors

High calorie intake has often been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. However, the interaction between various compounds (total fat, animal fat, saturated or un-saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, omega-3 fatty acids) is very complex (Wuermli 72 studies concerning intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene levels in relation to the risk of various cancers. An inverse association was identified in 57 reports and 35 of them were statistically significant. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for tumors of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Conversely, no study indicated that intake of tomatoes or a high serum lycopene level led to an increased risk of cancer of any site. Numerous studies could demonstrate an inverse correlation between intake of vitamins and incidence of various types of malignant tumors. Of special interest with regard to prostate cancer were vitamins A, C, D, and E. Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant in...

Deregulation Of Inositol 145trisphosphate Pathway And Its Consequences

Another line of circumstantial evidence may be cited. For instance, monoterpe-nes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol have been reported not only to prevent tumour initiation and promotion, but also to inhibit tumour progression. These monoterpenes appear to inhibit the isoprenylation of G-proteins (Gould, 1997), which are a component of the signal transduction machinery (Figure 5). Similarly, abnormalities in the related pathway involving DAG and PKC may also be associated with cancers, as demonstrated by Hoelting et al. (1997) using the PKC agonist TPA (12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate). They reported a 15 increase in the invasive ability of a follicular thyroid cancer cell line. In contrast, PKC inhibitors such as staurosporine, chelerythrine and calphostin C reduced invasion by 62 . CAI which inhibits calcium influx into cells, has been reported to inhibit the proliferative and invasive capacity of cell lines derived from human prostate cancer (Wasilenko et al. 1996). The...

Osteonectin Homologues And Their Putative Tumour Suppressor Properties

Hevin is expressed ubiquitously in most normal tissues and in diseased tissues of nonneoplastic origin. There may be differences in the patterns of their distribution in normal tissues, as demonstrated for SC1 (Soderling et al. 1997). The expression of hevin has been reported to be down-regulated in many neoplasms, e.g., in non-small cell lung carcinome (NSCLC) (Bendik et al. 1998) and adenocarcinoma of the prostate (P.S. Nelson et al. 1998). Claeskens et al. (2000) transfected hevin cDNA into HeLa-35 cells, which do not express indigenous hevin. The transfected hevin cDNA negatively regulated proliferation and seemed to block Gj-S transition of cells. Therefore, Claeskens et al. (2000) suggest that hevin may be a putative suppressor gene. However, it might be premature to label a gene as a suppressor gene merely on the basis of possible inhibition of cell proliferation. It ought to be stated, in defence of the postulate, that hevin does possess anti-adhesion properties, can inhibit...

Osteocalcin in Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

The osteocalcin gene is expressed in consonance with the inhibition of cell proliferation and the onset of cell differentiation and ECM mineralisation (Y.P. Li et al. 1995). VD3, as discussed above, induces osteocalcin expression, but on the other hand, it inhibits cell proliferation, apparently with the mediation of cdk inhibitors. M.J. Campbell et al. (1997) synthesised a number of VD3 analogues and demonstrated that these were capable of inhibiting proliferation of the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, and DU145. The inhibition of cell proliferation was accompanied by an up-regulation of the expression of the cdk inhibitors p21waf1 and p27kip1. An up-regulation of p21waf1 expression has also been encountered in VD3-induced differentiation of human MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, and this has been shown to be independent of p53 function (Matsumoto et al. 1998). Therefore, these observations seem to define a direct and novel pathway of inhibition of cell cycle progression by VD3. The...

The Great Cancer Myths

In most polls, it is the most feared disease of all. Coupled with this are the almost daily media reports of another carcinogen or cancer risk being found in our environment that produce a setting for the sometimes hysterical fear that cancer lurks around every corner. Epidemiological pronouncements that one out of eight women will die of breast cancer or one of every four men will get prostate cancer, while perhaps having some statistical validity if everyone would reach age 80 and die of nothing else, belies the real risk of getting and dying of cancer. A study published by Wo-loshin et al.151 puts this rate in a more rational context. never smoked, 14 of 1000 will die of heart disease, 5 of lung cancer, and 7 of breast cancer by the time they reach 70 years of age. For 60-year-old men who are smokers, 84 of 1000 will die of heart disease and 98 of lung cancer, but only 4 of 1000 will die of prostate cancer.

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