S100a8 S100a9

Female specific hyperactivity, lack of habituation to novelty, reduced T-maze spontaneous alternation rate, abnormal exploratory behavior Enhanced astrocytosis and neurite proliferation Impaired learning and memory, increased dendrite density, enhanced age-related loss of dendrites Inhibitory effect on cardiac hypertrophy Increased susceptibility to hypoxia-ischemia Increased apoptosis after myocardial infarction Enhanced neuroinflammation and neuronal dysfunction induced by amyloid-( Increased...

Annexin 2 And Viral Infection

In addition to possible roles in bacterial infection, annexin 2 is also implicated as a co-receptor for a number of viruses. It was identified as a potential receptor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) on Hep2 cells, binding to the viral G-protein, and indeed its expression was increased following viral infection (Raynor et al., 1999 Malhotra et al., 2003). Annexin 2 has also been identified as a co-receptor for cytomegalovirus (CMV) (Adlish et al., 1990 Taylor and Cooper, 1990 Raynor et...

Calpain10

The human calpain-10 gene (chromosome 2q) contains 15 exons and is expressed in eight different alternatively spliced isoforms (calpain-10a-h), with calpain-10a being the most abundant (Goll, et al., 2003). CNP10 transcripts are ubiquitously expressed in mouse, rat and human tissues, with high expression levels in human heart and rat brain. The protein is present in high concentration in the water insoluble fractions of tissues, suggesting that a significant portion of it might be associated...

Annexin 1 And Inflammation

Annexin 1 is predominantly an intracellular protein initially identified as a major target for phosphorylation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is expressed at high levels in many cell types and has a crucial role in EGF-mediated inward vesiculation of the EGFR (White et al., 2006). Signalling through the EGFR leads to stimulation of the MAP kinase pathway via an intermediate complex involving p21 ras and Grb2. Annexin 1 appears to competitively inhibit recruitment of this...

S100a12

Guignard et al. detected a protein that was immunologically related to S100A8 and S100A9 (Guignard et al., 1995). Human S100A12 was then purified, its proteins sequence determined by tandem mass spectrometry (Ilg et al., 1996) and its nucleotide sequence localised on human chromosome 1q21 (Wicki et al., 1996a). S100A12 is mainly expressed in granulocytes but also in keratinocytes and psoriatic lesions (for rev. see (Moroz et al., 2003b Roth et al., 2003). The Ca2+ -loaded crystal structure...

Calpains In Neurodegeneration And Neuronal Death

The role of calpains in neuronal cell death has been traditionally considered very likely, and has been examined in various injuries and pathological conditions of the central nervous system. As expected, increased calpain activity has frequently been related to the development of neurological disorders involving impaired calcium homeostasis (Besse et al., 1994) (Blalock et al., 1999) (Romero et al., 2002). The importance of calpain activation as a final pathway in states of acute cell injury...

Annexins And Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic condition that can present in two different ways type-1 insulin-dependent diabetes or the more common type-2 insulin non-dependent diabetes. In both instances it is the resulting hyperglycemia that is thought to be primarily responsible for the disease facies. Although diabetes is a systemic condition that affects all parts of the body, for the purposes of this discussion the endothelium will be the main point of focus, since the most complete data regarding the role of...

Lgmd2a

Duchenne's and Becker's muscular dystrophies This disease is associated with mutations in the gene encoding calpain 3 (CAPN3) and the probable loss of CAPN3 proteolytic activity. This type of cancer is associated with down-regulation of CAPN9. Mutations in intron 3 of CAPN10 are associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in some populations. These dystrophies are associated with the absence or deficiency of dystrophin, a membrane-associated protein, resulting in an increased Ca2+...

S100a11

References Bell et al., Neuropsychopharmacology 2003 28 1810-1816 Gerlai et al., Behav. Brain Res. 1993 55 51-59 Gerlai et al., Behav. Neurosci. 1994 108 100-106 Gerlai et al., Behav. Brain Res. 1993 59 119-124 Gerlai et al., J. Psychiatry Neurosci 1995 20 105-112 Gerlai et al., Neurobiol. Learn Mem. 1996 66 143-154 Gerlai et al., Learn Mem. 1995 2 26-39 Roder et al., 1996a 60 31-36 Roder et al., Physiol. Behav. 1996b 60 611-615 Reeves et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 1994 91 5359-5363...

Annexins And Cancer

As previously described, annexins are ubiquitous proteins, expressed to different degrees in different cell types. The annexin 'fingerprint' of cells may vary between quiescent and activated cells or indeed as cells undergo steps in developmental maturation. There have been many recent studies which have identified changes in annexin expression during neoplastic progression. Many of these studies depend on comparative proteomic or genomic analysis of tumour and 'normoplastic' tissues. In some...

Calpain10 And T2dm

Even if the linkage between calpain-10 and Type 2 diabetes remains obscure, the possibility that the protease participates in pathways that regulate glucose homeostasis is drawing increasing attention. Thus it has been reported that mutations of the calpain-10 gene influence both insulin secretion Lynn et al., 2002 Marshall et al., 2004 and insulin action Baier et al., 2000 Orho et al., 2002 . Clinical studies on full heritage Pima Indians of Arizona, a population with the world's highest...