General Organization

Clivus Bone Sagittal

The central nervous system CNS includes the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord Fig. 1 plus a few scary-sounding structures situated between the brain stem and cerebrum namely, the diencephalon Which includes everything with the name thalamus i.e. the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and subthalamus and the basal ganglia which includes the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, the putamen, claustrum, and amygdala . Fortunately, it is clinically unimportant to have a detailed...

Clinical Review

Dermatomal Distribution Map Hand

9-1 What general principles are useful in determining whether a lesion lies at the level of the cerebral cortex, internal capsule, cerebellum,basal ganglia, brain stem, spinal cord or peripheral nerve Ans. Cerebellar and basal ganglia lesions result in motor problems, specifically in aberrations in the quality of coordinated movements, as opposed to paralysis. Cerebellar dysfunction is characterized by awkwardness of intentional movements. Basal ganglia disorders are more characterized by...

Cranial Nerve 7 The Facial Nerve

Cranial Nerve Face

CN7 a hook Fig. 30 pulls down, closing the eye, whereas CN3 3 pillars Fig. 30 opens the eye. This is a vital clinical point. Figure 31 illustrates the clinical difference between upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron damage to CN7. If one severs CN7, which innervates one entire side of the face, including the eyelids and eyebrows, that entire side of the face becomes paralyzed. The forehead on the affected side appears Fig. 31 Facial paralysis caused by upper and lower MN lesions of CN7....