Urban Survival Secrets for Terrorist Attacks

Urban Survival Guide

Discover How You Can Easily Have A Survival Plan Staying Right Where You Currently Live That's Better Than Having. A Fully Stocked Rural Retreat That You Can't Get To! Finally Revealed: Urban Survival Secrets For Surviving Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters And Pandemics! In The Real World, Most People Don't Have A Fully Stocked Retreat They Can Escape To. Even If You've Planned Ahead And You Do, There's No Guarantee That You'll Leave In Time Or That You'll Be Able To Make It There. Your First Plan Must Be To Survive In Place. More here...

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Author: David Morris
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Fighting Terrorism and Buying Food with Biometrics

People in the United States and in many other countries around the world are concerned with terrorism. Consequently, bio-metric applications are becoming more popular and necessary. Government and private organizations are developing and promoting many biometric applications such as fingerprint scans, hand geometry, and retinal scans to defend against terrorism. For example, airport security in the near future will use face scanning and fingerprinting. Visitors crossing national borders may be tracked with biometric information on large databases. Transportation

We recommend that the national security and law enforcement communities develop new channels of sustained communication

The recent experience with anthrax dispersal in the United States made clear that there are individuals or groups in the world who will use the most horrific weapons, including pathogenic organisms, to kill innocent people for vague and unstated political goals. Added to the already existing concern about nonstate actors seeking BW capabilities, this has put bioterrorism along with biological warfare on the front burner for both the military and civilian populations. It has also meant that groups of people who had little history of working together, such as basic biomedical scientists and the FBI and CIA, must now find a way of sharing information and expertise. The nuclear physics Department of Defense community, which grew from a relatively small group during World War II, has had a long history of participation with intelligence and defense. Biomedical science, as already discussed, has had a different history. The intelligence and law enforcement agencies need the academic...

The National Academies

The charge to our Committee was to consider ways to minimize threats from biological warfare and bioterrorism without hindering the progress of biotechnology, which is essential for the health of the nation. This task is complicated because almost all biotechnology in service of human health can be subverted for misuse by hostile individuals or nations. The major vehicles of bioterrorism, at least in the near term, are likely to be based on materials and techniques that are available throughout the world and are easily acquired. Most importantly, a critical element of our defense against bioterrorism is the accelerated development of biotechnology to advance our ability to detect and cure disease. Since the development of biotechnology is facilitated by the sharing of ideas and materials, open communication offers the best security against bioterrorism. The tension between the spread of technologies that protect us and the spread of technologies that threaten us is the crux of the...

The Current and Evolving Regulatory Environment

In the United States, the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and the Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 already establish the statutory and regulatory basis for protecting biological materials from inadvertent misuse. Once fully implemented, the mandated registration for possession of certain pathogens (the select agents), designation of restricted individuals who may not possess select agents, and a regulatory system for the physical security of the most dangerous pathogens within the United States will provide a useful accounting of domestic laboratories engaged in legitimate research and some reduction in the risk of pathogens acquired from designated facilities falling into the hands of terrorists. The Committee stresses that implementation of current legislation must not be overly restrictive given the critical role that the development of effective vaccines, diagnostics, therapeutics, and detection systems, along with a responsive public health system, will play in...

Ethics Of Animal Research

If we use animals as experimental subjects in biomedical research because we think it is inhumane to use humans, we may wonder whether the use of animals is also inhumane. The manifesto of the modern antivivisection movement was Peter Singer's 1975 book, Animal Liberation.144 Although Singer was willing to defend his position against vivisection with rational arguments, a number of activists took the path of terrorism, including depredation of laboratories and attempts at murder.145148 Editors of biomedical journals felt the strength of the movement and wrote editorials about it.149152 Embarrassed by their depiction as animal torturers by the activists, biomedical researchers overreacted by imposing on themselves strict rules for the use of animals in research.153156 On one hand, this course of affairs was positive because it showed that researchers were willing to compromise and also because it improved the quality of biomedical research by forcing scientists with sloppy animal...

Little Advice on Giving Advice

In a clinical interview, however, interviewers are in a position of power and authority. Consequently, interviewers sometimes lose their inhibition and disagree openly with clients. Depending on the issue, the result can be devastating to clients, disruptive to therapy, and may involve abuse of power and authority. Imagine, for example, a client and therapist having the following interaction about U.S. foreign policy not long after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks

Inhibitors of Orthopoxviruses

Concerns about possible unnatural outbreak of smallpox (such as in a bioterrorist attack), prompted a renewed interest in the search for antiviral agents that might be useful to treat smallpox (variola). Because evaluation of anti-variola compounds cannot be done in a laboratory without a BSL-4 facility, and variola (as well as monkeypox) does not cause disease in adult mice (464), routine preclinical assessment of potential anti-variola compounds can only be studied in systems using surrogate viruses, such as vaccinia and cowpox viruses.

Historical Context

Robin Cook, master of the medical thriller, was born in New York in 1940, received an M.D. from Columbia University, and did postgraduate work at Harvard Medical School. He is on a leave of absence from Massachusetts Eye and Ear Institute and lives in Waterville Valley, New Hampshire, with his wife and child. He was once Jacques Cous-teau's Sea Lab aquanaut in the south of France. Since 1970 Cook has been writing about hot issues in the evolving medical field. His other novels include Outbreak (1987), VitalSigns(1991), and Toxin (1998). Cook's novel Vector (1999) about a bioterrorist anthrax attack on New York City foreshadowed the real-life event in 2001. Showing a knack for anticipating public debate on controversial topics, Cook's Shock (2001) describes the fertility industry and controversy over federal funding of stem cell research. Each novel is compelling and informing, while also exacerbating the public's fear.

Inhalation Toxicokinetics Of Soman Upon Lowlevel Exposure

As evident from the previous paragraphs of this chapter, investigations on the toxi-cokinetics of nerve agents have centered on lethal and supralethal doses of nerve agent. However, the controversy on the possible relationship between the so-called Gulf War Syndrome and exposure to traces of nerve agent shortly after the Gulf War has emphasized that knowledge on the acute and delayed effects of trace exposure to nerve agents is almost nonexistent.32,33 Nevertheless, several situations can be envisaged in which trace exposures becomes realistic. In the case of chemical warfare, small amounts of agent may penetrate into gas masks and protective clothing or into a collective protective shelter. Small amounts of nerve agent may desorb from contaminated skin, clothing, or painted surfaces, posing a risk of long-term, low-level exposure. Miosis, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, and tightness of the chest were observed in rescue workers and medical personnel in hospitals due to secondary exposure to...

Possession of Select Agents

The Bioterrorism Response Act36 adds new requirements for the Secretary of HHS to consider in listing agents and in preventing unlawful access to agents during transfers.37 Facilities that register their possession and use of listed agents and toxins must provide information regarding the characterization of listed agents and toxins to facilitate their identification, including their source and safeguard and security requirements for registered persons.38 Regulations specified under this law must include appropriate safeguard and security requirements for persons possessing, using, or transferring a listed agent or toxin commensurate with the risk such agent or toxin poses to public health and safety (including the risk of use in domestic or international terrorism).39 Registered facilities must limit access to listed biological agents and toxins only to those determined by the registered facility to have a legitimate need to handle or use select agents,40 and the Secretary must be...

Oversight of Foreign Nationals43

The September 11th terrorist attacks greatly increased the concern and accelerated the plans for improving efforts to provide adequate scrutiny of visa applications and to track foreign nationals once they entered the United States. Foreign scholars planning shorter visits are also affected by increased concern for security, with impacts on the ability of researchers to take part in international meetings, conferences, or international research collaborations. Over time, these various restrictions could potentially alter the way research is conducted and have the potential to impede scientific progress in the United States.

Literary Analysis

The government's response to anthrax threats, which relates to our own twenty-first-century fears of bioterrorism in the United States, was to create a one-world state and to fortify the economy by controlling the population. In order to maintain a stable community, individual identity was forsaken. The most interesting aspect of the plot is that, rather than exercising military control, biotechnologies took over. Humans were mass-produced, then physically and psychologically conditioned into a specific class, each with its own destiny. Although less time is spent on character analysis here than on bioeth-ical issues, the five classes or castes Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons all were fixed into their predestined tasks to keep the economy running. Likewise, the American education system once tracked children into specific slots throughout their school years. And in countries like China, where the birth rate is strictly controlled, students' high school scores either...

On The Applied Side The Pigeon As A Quality Control Inspector

In addition to Verhave (1966), there have been other attempts to use pigeons either for navigation of missiles (Skinner, 1960) or for running assembly lines (Cumming, 1966). More recently, Azar (2002) reports that the U.S. Navy in the 1970s and 1980s used pigeons to find people stranded at sea. Navy scientist Jim Simmons, Ph.D., trained pigeons by operant conditioning for search-and-rescue missions. The pigeons were trained to recognize objects floating in the water from an aircraft and were 93 accurate, compared with only 38 accuracy for human flight crews. When combined with human searchers, the pigeons' detection rate rose to almost perfect. Today with the threat of terrorism, there is talk of using pigeons to screen baggage at airport terminals, but history suggests that such a project will not work. In each pigeon project, the company's management (or military officers) were at first skeptical and amused by the claim that pigeons could perform such feats. Once it became clear...

Defining Sensitive Information

Sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information includes information generated within the government but may also extend to knowledge generated purely in the private sector. Particularly in the wake of the September 11th attacks, the standard examples of sensitive information tend to be those that relate to the vulnerability of critical infrastructures, including facilities that are privately owned. The key nodes in an electricity grid are a frequently cited example, and information related to the design and operation of a nuclear power plant or transport of nuclear materials has long been protected as Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. In addition, it is easy to imagine that information such as the location of biological research programs might be considered sensitive, if the theft of select agents is considered a threat.32 The Bioterrorism Response Act exempts information on possession of select agents from FOIA.

Publication of Sensitive Information in the Life Sciences

Until recently, there were very few cases of problems related to the publication of research results in the life sciences that attracted significant public attention. Some specialists in bioterrorism, however, had warned that, given continuing advances in biotechnology, open publication could provide information of use to terrorists.43 The publication of the mousepox study, as well as other studies discussed in Chapter 1, made the issue a major concern for journal editors.44 The public perception of potential risks associated with publication of such information led to calls for scientific journals to refrain from publishing dangerous research or to delete some data from published research results in order to preclude others from replicating the results.45 Journals in the life sciences have responded in a number of ways to the concerns that published articles might provide useful knowledge or a roadmap for terrorists or rogue states.

Scientific Foundations

In 2001, about two weeks after the September 11 terrorist attacks, letters containing anthrax spores began arriving at the offices of two U.S. senators and several TV stations and newspapers. Anthrax is the kind of bacteria most commonly used for biological weapons. The anthrax spores infected

Specific Trauma Risks

War, Terrorism, and Civil Disturbances Little is known about the pain consequences of war, terrorism, or civil disturbance in children. We are all familiar with news reports of children injured or killed in terrorist attacks or war, although a Medline search with the criteria Pain MESH AND Child MESH AND (War MESH OR Terrorism MESH ) identified only eight publications, most of which were not relevant.

Many more experiments will explore the virulence factors of bacteria and viruses

The great majority of experiments on pathogenic bacteria or viruses are performed to ascertain exactly what makes the microbes pathogenic and virulent. Scientists are thus continuously exploring the ways that turning certain genes on and off enable these agents to be transmissible or cause disease in an appropriate host organism. Moreover, the concern over bioterrorism has stimulated the government to provide significantly increased funding to help combat infectious disease. The Fiscal Year 2003 budget passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush in January 2003 added 6 -10 billion, spread across a number of agencies, to biodefense research in the United States.1 The NIH, for example, received 1.5 billion for biodefense research. Internationally, other countries are also increasing their investments in civilian bioterrorism defense research. These increased domestic and international investments in basic and applied public health and bioterrorism defense research will...

Microarrays Currentmarket Overview

Though these estimates are impressive, they still fail to take into account the explosive industry growth that could occur, should microarrays take off in any of the four emerging growth areas, namely clinical diagnostics, toxicogenomics, environmental monitoring, and bioterrorism. Current estimates put the DNA-based (nonmicroarray) diagnostics industry at more than 1 billion (2002) with expectations that it will reach 3 billion by 2008 5 . Toxicogenomics, with a current market of only 120 million (2003), is expected to grow to almost 259 million by 2008 6 . But the real financial incentives are coming from the U.S. government's commitment to combating terrorism. There is an expectation that DNA microarrays will be used in every aspect of counterterrorism from surveillance to exposure diagnosis to treatment monitoring. The stakes are high and so are the funding opportunities for microarray technologies. For example, funding at the CDC for initiatives regarding public health...

Microarrays Future Market Directions And Hurdles

Advances in our understanding of genomewide expression patterns will foster many uses for microarray technology including determining the potential for disease, predicting drug response, disease diagnosis and monitoring, bioterrorism surveillance, identifying infectious disease outbreaks, as well as forensic and paternity identification.

Nucleoside Derivatives

Several different animal models have been used to assess the therapeutic potential of cidofovir for the treatment of poxvirus infections. In earlier studies, De Clercq et al. had used intravenous injection of vaccinia virus to infect the mice and measured the suppression of tail lesion formation to assess a compound's antiviral effect (465). Similarly infected SCID mice also die from the disseminate vaccinia infection in addition to the development of tail lesions. In such infected SCID mice, cidofovir was shown to significantly delay the mean day of death using either treatment or prophylactic regimen (478). However, inoculation of virus by injection does not simulate the respiratory exposure that occurs in natural smallpox infection nor in a bioterrorist scenario, namely infection acquired by aerosol route. To mimic the natural infection, Bray et al. (479) and Smee et al. (480-482) demonstrated that aerosol or intranasal infection of BALB c mice with vaccinia virus or cowpox virus...

Market Evolution

The longstanding goals in biological weapons R& D have been to produce biological agents that are more virulent, more stable, more viable, easier to handle and deploy, require less time to manufacture, and are more difficult to defend against. However, with the focus in the United States on homeland security, and the worldwide pressure against the development and use of biological warfare agents, the bulk of publicly accessible research and development funding will likely be centered on detecting and responding to a biological attack. In the area of containing the spread of disease following the exposure of a population to a biological, a number of experimental information systems, such as the U.S. Air Force's Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System (LEADERS), are under development. LEADERS is a Web-based system designed to empower medical personnel to track symptom outbreaks as they are reported by hospitals in real time. In the event of a...

Orthopoxviruses

Smallpox is presumably one of the most attractive pathogens to a potential bioterrorist because it meets the twin criteria of high transmissibility and high mortality. In addition, survivors are left with disfiguring sequelae. Historically drugs were tried both for treatment of smallpox and for prophylaxis of contacts but rarely in well-controlled clinical trials. Post-exposure prophylaxis with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) demonstrated a modest anecdotal benefit when given to close contacts of smallpox patients along with revaccination, yet this scenario is not altogether relevant when an ever-increasing portion of the population has not received even a primary vaccination, and supplies of VIG are limited (454-456).

Tracking Systems

Interagency Panel for Advanced Science and Security (IPASS). IPASS is a response to an October 2001 Presidential Decision Directive, Combating Terrorism through Immigration Policies, which directed federal agencies to develop student immigration policies through which the country prohibits certain students from receiving education and training in sensitive areas. The White House's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) has been working with the White House's Homeland Security Council and others to develop and implement IPASS, although at the time of this report the Executive Order to create IPASS had not yet been signed.

Conclusion

For an invading pathogen, the inside of the cell is an enormous and hostile place. Bacteria and viruses are able to manipulate this harsh environment with astonishing ease, using a powerful and varied genetic armory. One of the most exciting discoveries that has been made by those studying this genetic terrorism, is that most of the weapons identified so far appear to act on a common set of host targets. For example, the fact that organisms as diverse as vaccinia and Orientia both target the dynein-dynactin complex to accumulate near the centrosome highlights the fundamental importance these proteins must play in the organization of the cell.

Preamble

But new science, as we know, may sometimes have costs as well as benefits. The prospect that weapons of mass destruction might find their way into the hands of terrorists did not suddenly appear on September 11, 2001. A policy focus on nuclear proliferation, no stranger to the physics community, has been with us for many years. But the events of September 11 brought a new understanding of the urgency of dealing with terrorism. And the subsequent harmful use of infectious agents brought a new set of issues to the life sciences. As a result, questions have been asked by the scientists themselves and by some political leaders about the possibility that new information published in research journals might give aid to those with malevolent ends. What follows reflects some outcomes of that preliminary discussion. Fundamental is a view, shared by nearly all, that there is information that, although we cannot now capture it with lists or definitions, presents enough risk of use by terrorists...

Biological Warfare

Because symptoms of an infection by a biological such as anthrax may not be evident for days, defensive measures include the development of real-time detectors of airborne or waterborne biological agents that can warn of a biological attack. Armed with this information, it's more likely that a population exposed to a biological can be treated before the disease has progressed to the point that a high mortality is inevitable.

And Military

Government (2GG1). 21st Century Complete Guide to Bioterrorism, Biological and Chemical Weapons, Germs and Germ Warfare, Nuclear and Radiation Terrorism Military Manuals and Federal Documents with Practical Emergency Plans, Protective Measures, Medical Treatment and Survival Information. Progressive Management (Manual and CD-ROM).

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