Receiver operating characteristic ROC curve a

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plot of the diagnostic specificity versus sensitivity of a test reciprocal - opposite relationship reduction - losing oxygen; increasing the negative valence of a molecule by gain of electrons/production of electrons and a positively charged ion; reaction at the cathode reference method - a thoroughly investigated method with documented accuracy and precision registration - the process by which qualified individuals are listed on an official roster maintained by a governmental or nongovernmental agency regulatory - relating to rules or directives remodeling - the overall effect of depositing and absorbing bone to remake new bone renal failure - loss of renal function for control of water and electrolytes, decline in filtration and removal of wastes, and loss of nutrients renal threshold - plasma level at which the kidneys no longer reabsorb a substance so that it is excreted into urine as waste replication - duplication of DNA resistance - opposing force to flow of electrons (in ohms)

resorption - to soak up or take in again respiratory acidosis - acidosis caused by retention of carbon dioxide due to pulmonary insufficiency respiratory alkalosis - alkalosis with an acute reduction of plasma bicarbonate and a proportionate reduction in plasma carbon dioxide respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) - severe impairment of respiratory function in a preterm newborn due to immaturity of the enzymatic system essential for pulmonary surfactant production rhodopsin - the glycoprotein opsin of the rods in the retina, which combines with retinal to form a functional photopigment responsive to light rickets - disease of bone formation in children, most commonly caused by vitamin D deficiency RNA - ribonucleic acid; serves as a messenger of inherited nucleic acid from the nucleus template and translates that message into protein; in some prokaryotes, it is the chemical that serves as the inherited message rods - the slender sensory bodies in the retina of the eye, which respond to faint light rouleaux - stickiness of erythrocytes causing a stacked coin appearance sample - a portion of the specimen to be used in analysis screening test - test to determine if patients have a disease before they present with symptoms; should be very sensitive scurvy - disease of the skin and joints, caused by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid secretin - hormone secreted by duodenal mucosa; stimulates sodium bicarbonate secretion by the pancreas and bile secretion by the liver selective inactivation - process of rendering some chemicals nonfunctional while keeping the function of other similar chemicals sensitivity - the ability to detect small concentrations of the measured analyte sensitization - production of antibody as a response to antigen exposure sensory nerves - nerves of the sensory organs sequential analysis - performing a set of test reactions in a particular order on each sample in the order in which it is received serological - studying serum components of the blood; making a serum titer for clinical laboratory testing, such as an antibody titer Sertoli cells - specialized cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis that produce inhibin and factors that help sperm maturation shift - a sudden and sustained change in quality control results above the mean shunt - passage between two natural channels, such as between blood vessels, that bypasses a particular organ sideroblastic anemia - anemia characterized by ferritin-containing blast cells in bone marrow sigmoidoscopy - examination of the lower portion of the colon (sigmoid portion) with an instrument single-channel - able to perform only one test with a dedicated portion of the instrument sinusoid - a large, permeable capillary sinusoidal - forming a small channel for blood in the tissues of the liver or other organ SO2 - oxygen saturation; a measure of the utilization of the current oxygen transport capacity solubility - the ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent solute - the substance that is dissolved in the solution solution - a mixture of two or more substances solvent - the substance that is used to dissolve the solute spasms - twitching of muscles, which may accompany muscle ache specificity - freedom from interference and cross reactivity, to determine solely the analyte purported to be measured specimen - aliquot of body fluid or tissue from a patient spectrophotometer - instrument that uses a photode-tector to measure the amount of a specific wavelength of light transmitted through a test solution to determine concentration sperm cell - male germinal cell spider angioma - a form of tumor, usually benign, consisting of blood vessels or lymph vessels STAT - immediately or at once statin - medication used to control hypercholes-

terolemia by affecting metabolism of cholesterol steady state - condition in which the average drug concentration remains in equilibrium after multiple intervals of drug dosage

550 GLOSSARY

steatorrhea - failure to digest or absorb fats in the gastrointestinal tract steric - relating to the size of and distances between chemicals or side chains within the spatial arrangement of atoms in the chemical steroids - high molecular weight compounds with carbon atoms in a four-ring structure similar to cholesterol subarachnoid space - space between the membranes of the covering of the central nervous system that contains the cerebrospinal fluid substrate - reactant in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction that is converted to product sulfonylurea - one of a class of oral drugs used to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus surfactant - a substance that reduces the surface tension of the moist surfaces of solid tissue sweat test - test for cystic fibrosis that involves measuring the subject's sweat for abnormally high sodium chloride content systematic error - error that occurs predictably once a pattern of recognition is established; predictable errors of the same sign and magnitude systemic lupus erythematosus - chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multiple organ systems tachometer - device that measures speed in revolutions per minute tachycardia - racing heart rate tagged - labeled with some component that allows detection or visualization tared - adjusted a scale to zero, such as negating the mass of an empty vessel so that only the mass of an unknown is displayed tertiary level - a third level in a hierarchy, such as the hypothalamus in the endocrine system tetany - neuromotor irritability accompanied by muscular twitching and eventual convulsions thalassemia - hereditary anemia caused by defective production of alpha or beta chain of hemoglobin/ diseases resulting from decreased synthesis of globin chains therapeutic drug monitoring - measuring serum levels of a drug to aid in adjusting drug dosage therapeutic range - beneficial serum drug concentration levels, including a lower and an upper limit thrombosis - formation or development of a blood clot (thrombus) in a blood vessel thyrotoxicosis - acute illness due to hyperthyroidism thyroxine (T4) - main hormone synthesized in the thyroid gland, also known as 3,5,3'5'-tetraiodothy-ronine tonic-clonic seizures - loss of consciousness and balance followed by contractions of the muscles of the extremities, trunk, and head, often with an uncontrolled outcry at the onset tonometry - measurement of dissolved gases in a solution in order to standardize the partial pressure or tension of carbon dioxide and oxygen total hemoglobin - a measure of potential oxygen transport capacity tourniquet - band used on arm to cause the veins to distend toxicity - poisoning due to exposure to a toxin, including drugs, gases, heavy metals, and alcohols transcription - synthesis of RNA from a DNA template transcutaneous - through the skin, not invading the body through a puncture; percutaneous transferrin - a beta1 globulin transport protein for carrying iron in blood plasma translation - synthesis of protein transmittance - the amount of light not retained but passed through a test solution trend - a gradual but steady change in quality control results moving up or down away from the mean triclonal - composed of three clones of plasma cell lines that each produce one type of identical antibody triiodothyronine (T3) - more potent thyroid hormone, also known as 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine trisomy - three copies of a chromosome instead of the normal two tropins - stimulating protein hormones trough - the lowest level of a particular drug found in the blood following administration of a dose and just prior to the administration of the next dose, after a peak in drug level true negative - result below the decision limit in a patient who does not have the disease true positive - result at or above the decision limit in a patient who has the disease truncal obesity - weight gain in the middle of the body rather than including the arms or legs tubercular granuloma - a mass or nodule of chronically inflamed tissue with granulations that is usually associated with an infective process tumor markers - surface molecules on tissue or proteins in serum that, in higher than normal quantities, are associated with the presence of malignancies turbidity - cloudiness of solution due to presence of light-blocking particles or molecules such as fats ultrafiltrate - filtrate formed under pressure, such as found in the choroid plexus ultrasound - imaging technique that uses high frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs, tissue, and blood vessels uremia - a toxic condition associated with renal insufficiency produced by the retention in the blood of nitrogenous substances normally excreted by the kidney ureterosigmoidostomy - implantation of the ureter into the sigmoid colon to eliminate wastes when the urinary system is unable uroporphyrin - highly water-soluble precursor of heme found in urine uterus - hollow muscular organ located in the pelvic cavity of the woman in which the blastocyst implants and the fetus develops ventilation - air exchange between lungs and gases inhaled and exhaled; designated as V voltammetry - measuring the current at an electrode using a specific voltage generated at another electrode waived - tests that are very simple or pose no reasonable risk of harm to the patient if the test is performed incorrectly washout - water or wash solution flowing through a chamber after a sample has passed through in order to clean it out and prevent carryover work of breathing - effort needed to inhale and exhale xenobiotic - a biochemical that is not produced in the body zero-order kinetics - catalyzed reaction with all active sites of the enzyme filled with substrate so reaction occurs at its fastest rate; also called saturation kinetics zona fasciculata - middle of the three layers of the adrenal cortex that consists of radially arranged columnar epithelial cells zona glomerulosa - outermost of the three layers of the adrenal cortex that consists of round masses of granular epithelial cells that stain deeply zona reticularis - innermost of the three layers of the adrenal cortex that consists of irregularly arranged cylindrical masses of epithelial cells zone electrophoresis - separating components of a mixture within a charged buffer solution by moving them through a porous filter based on electrical attractions zygote - single cell formed from fertilization of the oocyte and sperm cell

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Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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