Wendy Arneson and Jean Brickell

Case Scenario 12-1. Pregnancy Testing: Yes or No? PREGNANCY

Markers of Pregnancy Problems in Early Pregnancy Trophoblastic Neoplasm Multiple Fetuses and Pregnancy Hormones PREGNANCY TESTS AND EARLY MARKERS OF PROBLEMS Case Scenario 12-2. Infertility and Polycystic Ovarian Disease: "String of Pearls" in a Bearded Lady SEX STEROIDS

Protein and Peptide Reproductive Hormones ENDOCRINE GLANDS INVOLVED IN REPRODUCTION OVERVIEW OF NORMAL FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY

The Role of Inhibins THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE NORMAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY HORMONAL CHANGES IN MENOPAUSE FEMALE INFERTILITY Treatment for Infertility Infertility of Multiple Causes

Case Scenario 12-3. Preanalytical Error in Reproductive Testing: How Important Is the Timing? QUALITY ASSESSMENT Preanalytical Errors Analytical Factors Postanalytical Factors Case Scenario 12-4. Fetal Assessment for Open Neural Tube Defects and Down Syndrome: MoM Testing for Baby's Health ALPHA FETOPROTEIN

Open Neural Tube Defects Down Syndrome Trisomy 18 FETAL SCREENING MULTIPLES OF THE MEDIAN Example Calculation of MoM Alpha Fetoprotein Levels and Fetal Disorders OTHER SIGNIFICANT BIRTH DEFECTS AND INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM REFERENCE RANGES IN NEONATES Case Scenario 12-5. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: Two Rh-Negative Mothers

DEVELOPMENT OF HEMOLYTIC DISEASE TESTS FOR FETAL LUNG MATURITY

OF THE NEWBORN Surfactant Test

Case Scenario 12-6. Fetal Lung Maturity: Is This Baby Other Fetal Lung Maturity Tests

Mature Enough for Early Delivery? SUMMARY FETAL LUNG MATURITY AMNIOTIC FLUID COLLECTION Visual Inspection

The laboratory provides vital information regarding reproductive endocrinology, pregnancy, and fetal testing for physicians and other health-care providers. This chapter will focus on fertility, pregnancy, and fetal well-being assessment. Laboratory tests for reproduction, pregnancy, and fetal assessment and procedures of analysis will be discussed in the context of six scenarios. These will illustrate the importance of providing quality laboratory results and correlating laboratory values with disorders such as complications of pregnancy, infertility, premature birth, assessment of lung maturity, hemolytic disease of the newborn, and neural tube defects. The importance of recognizing and minimizing preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical errors will also be discussed throughout the chapter. Although there are many tests for fetal assessment and many reproductive hormones are analyzed in the clinical laboratory, detailed test methods will be provided for the most commonly measured analytes. As members of the health-care team, laboratory technologists work with many health-care professionals as they care for the mother and fetus, particularly those physicians and nurses in labor and delivery, neona-tology, and emergency medicine. The side boxes in this chapter provide common sense tips, definitions of terms, brief descriptions of pathophysiology, and clinical correlations as well as reminders of the team approach in health care. Text boxes within the chapter outline methodology for laboratory assessment of nutrition and digestive function.

100 Pregnancy Tips

100 Pregnancy Tips

Prior to planning pregnancy, you should learn more about the things involved in getting pregnant. It involves carrying a baby inside you for nine months, caring for a child for a number of years, and many more. Consider these things, so that you can properly assess if you are ready for pregnancy. Get all these very important tips about pregnancy that you need to know.

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