Positive Parenting Tips for Toddlers

Talking To Toddlers

Talking to Toddlers is a program that offers effective parenting tips to help shape behavior in toddlers. It is a creation of Chris Thompson, a parenting professional and certified NLP practitioner. No doubt he has all it takes to address the issue of parenting. The program helps parents understand problems often experienced by children, include the reasons behind their behaviors. In most cases, parents communicate to children in inappropriate ways without know. This may lead kids to behave contrary to parents expectations. This is among the major problems this program helps to fix. You will be able to learn about the word you often misuse and evoke bad reactions from kids. Kids are often misunderstood and this makes it difficult for them to learn. This guide has helped thousands of parents across the world and it is going to help you too. Buy it today and start learning the best strategies you can use to train your children. Continue reading...

Talking To Toddlers Summary


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Contents: Audio Course
Author: Chris Thompson
Official Website: talkingtotoddlers.com
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Toddler Talk: Techniques & Games

Bridget Giraldo is a licensed, American Speech-language Hearing Association (ASHA) certified, and a speech-language pathologist. She provides knowledge and the expertise to assist others to enhance their communication skills; parents especially benefit from her helpful tips concerning simple ideas on how to include language and speech activities daily as they interact with their young ones. Bridget has worked in inpatient rehab, acute care, sub-acute care, private and public schools, private practice, and out-patient rehab. Her main objective in most of her publications is to empower all parents, professionals, and any caregiver in the aspect of speech and language therapy. The speech-language pathologist has a website called speech therapy talk where she shares plenty of ideas that touch on language and speech therapy as well as other practical, easy activities to do at home. The book Toddler talk: Technique and games are designed to give directions to parents so that they become the driving force of change for their children; it provides parents with professional and therapy ideas. The book will help children to develop life-changing skills crucial for academic and social development. The eBook is available online; download a copy. Every suggestion has been well proven to be practical and effective. Continue reading...

Toddler Talk Techniques & Games Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Bridget Giraldo
Price: $19.99

Reinstatement in Toddlers and Preschool Children

To date, there has been scant investigation of effects of reexposure on toddlers and preschool children. In one study, Howe et al. (1993) investigated reinstatement of preschool children's memories using a hiding task. Children from 2 to 3 years visited a laboratory playroom and were shown the hiding places of 16 toys in the room. Half of the children returned 1 week later and were shown the toys again, but were not shown the hiding locations. Three weeks later, when all children were tested for recall, children who had participated in the reinstatement session recalled more locations than did children who received no reinstatement. This study showed that object information without action information was effective in reinstatement when the original context was also part of the reinstatement environment.

Caregiver Differences

We have been interested in whether and how parents adapt the strategies they use to help their toddlers modulate mild distress. We assume that parents, at least in part, mold the strategies they use with their infants and toddlers in response to changes in children's capacities to modulate distress. During the infant and toddler periods, numerous neurophysiological and cognitive changes occur which most certainly impact children's emotion regulation capacities. Neurophysiological development allows for more modulated reactions to stress (Stansbury & Gunnar, 1994), and increased control over arousal (Fox, 1994). The cognitive advances that, at least in part, stem from these neural maturations (including increased planfulness, voluntary attention, self-awareness, and understanding of causality) certainly contribute to developmental changes in the use of the emotion regulatory strategies described above (Kopp, 1989). Parents are able to capitalize on these changes in their attempts to...

Contextual Influences On Temperament

Initial evidence showing how changes in individual temperament are associated with the nature of the child's environment typically involved assessment of negative emotionality during the first year of life. Specifically, Belsky, Fish, and Isabella (1991) have shown that infants who shifted from low to high negative emotionality during the first year of life had fathers who were both less involved with them early in infancy and who had greater feelings of marital dissatisfaction, as compared to infants whose level of negative emotionality remained low during this time period. In contrast, infants whose level of high negative emotionality declined over the first year of life had parents who had better marital relations and whose mothers displayed greater sensitivity, as compared to infants whose level of negative emotionality remained high during this time period. Similarly, Fish (1997) has reported that infants whose level of negative emotionality declined over the first year of life...

Nonparental Contextual Characteristics

In distinguishing contextual influences on child temperament from influences of child temperament on context, one approach would be to look at aspects of the environment which are potentially less sensitive to the influence of child temperament. One such aspect is the physical environment the stage or setting on which social transactions between child and caregiver take place (Wohlwill & Heft, 1987). The extent to which a child's temperamental characteristics can act to influence dimensions of the physical environment, such as number of wall decorations or rooms to people ratio, is both less likely and less intuitively obvious. Rather, it is more likely that specified dimensions of the physical environment can act to influence child temperament characteristics. One such dimension is environmental chaos, which involves factors such as crowding (e.g., rooms to people ratio), and levels of nonhuman noise in the home. Several studies provide converging evidence of the importance of...

The Role Of Parents In Early Understanding Of Words

We offer empirical support for the role of parents' responsiveness in children's receptive language. In one investigation dyads were visited in their homes at 9 months of age and were visited again 4 months later (Baumwell et al., 1997). The question of interest was whether mothers who were responsive to their 9-month-olds would have toddlers who later exhibited larger receptive vocabularies.

The Role Of Parents In Early Word Production

In several investigations, mothers' responsiveness related to children's productive vocabulary sizes concurrently and predictively. For example, in one study, mothers who responded more to their 5-month-old infants had babies who displayed larger flexible vocabularies at 13 months (Bornstein & Tamis-LeMonda, 1989). In other investigations, mothers' responsiveness to their 13-month-old toddlers' exploratory and communicative initiatives was concurrently related to children's productive vocabulary sizes (Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2001).

Reinstatement in Infancy

Ers including a stationary mobile identical to the training mobile and a different moving mobile. They found that functional information (movement) was critical for reinstatement exposure to a different, moving mobile was effective in reinstating recall but exposure to the original, but stationary mobile was not effective. Additionally, for infants under 6 months, only the original training mobile acts as an effective retrieval cue if training and testing are separated by one day. A novel mobile will only cue young infants if training and cueing occur within a 24-hour period. However, for older infants between 9 and 12 months, a novel object can act to cue their memory for a learned task for up to 2 weeks, but not after longer delays (Rovee-Collier, 1999). Thus, with age infants become somewhat more flexible in that reinstatement can occur even when some of the information provided in the reminder session is slightly different from the original experience. Does this trend continue in...

Young Childrens Event Recall

Although very young children lack the verbal skills to describe their memory for past events, several paradigms using behavioral measures have yielded a wealth of data on infants' and toddlers' memory (a) response-contingency tasks, (b) deferred imitation tasks, and (c) elicited imitation tasks. The results from these various lines of research provide compelling evidence that from infancy children are capable of retaining information from novel experiences over intervals from a few days (at 2 months of age) to several months (by 16 months of age). Elicited imitation research also takes advantage of toddlers' interest in imitating actions, but in this paradigm children are allowed to imitate multi-step sequences immediately after observing an experimenter's demonstration. As in deferred imitation, children return to the training context after a delay and are encouraged to reproduce the learned action sequences. The advantage of this procedure as compared to the deferred imitation...

Video and Photograph Reinstatement in 18Month Olds

A series of experiments tested whether toddlers could be reminded of a past event by watching a video simulation of their original experience (Sheffield & Hudson, 2004). Although video simulations provide as much information as viewing a live model, they are presented in a representational format and are not live events. Viewing a video simulation would only be effective in reinstating children's event memory if children were able to relate their internal memory representation of the event to the external, video representation of the event.

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

The effectiveness of different kinds of reminders for young children, including the use of symbolic reminders such as videos and photographs indicates that 1- and 2-year-olds' are more flexible in the kinds of experiences that can reinstate past memories as compared to younger infants. If infants are trained on one exemplar, their memories will not be reinstated by partial reminders that do not contain functional information (Greco et al., 1990). In contrast, toddlers do not require action information in order for reinstatement to occur, but their recall is better when both object and action information is provided. These findings suggest that at least by 18 months, children are encoding and storing more complete information about the individual components of events. Toddlers may be able to appreciate that activities are composed of various components (e.g., action and object information), and that some components may be interchangeable under certain circumstances. If children have...

Types of Injury 31 Bruises

Tramline Bruises

Other bruises of particular medicolegal significance are the small circular or oval bruises, usually approx 1-2 cm in diameter, characteristic of fingertip pressure from either gripping or grasping with the hand, prodding with the fingers, or the firm impact of a knuckle. They may be seen on the limbs in cases of child abuse when the child is forcibly gripped by the arms or legs and shaken or on the abdomen when the victim is poked, prodded, or punched. However, such nonaccidental injuries must be differentiated from bruises seen on toddlers and children associated with normal activities, play, or sports. Bruises may be seen on the neck in cases of manual strangulation and are then usually associated with other signs of asphyxia.

Perceptual Categorization

Although there has been a historical tradition among scholars of cognitive development to consider the ability to form category representations to be an achievement of childhood (Bruner, Olver, & Greenfield, 1966 Vygotsky, 1962), more modern work has focused on the abilities of infants and toddlers to respond categorically to common object types (Cohen & Strauss, 1979 Mandler & McDonough, 1993 Mervis, 1987 Oakes, Madole, & Cohen, 1991 Quinn & Eimas, 1996b Waxman & Markow, 1995 Xu & Carey, 1996 Younger, 1990). The chapter will now consider the evidence on categorization by these younger participants, with emphasis on studies of categorization of realistic photographic exemplars of animals and artifacts conducted with 3- to 4-month-olds in the author's laboratory. Particular issues of current contention include exemplar versus prototype storage of category information in memory, the perceptual versus conceptual basis for early object categories, and the relative roles of learning...

Possible Complications

Even when appropriate caloric intake is offered, problems may exist with absorption and metabolism.15 Furthermore, eating disorders in infants and toddlers may be observed following long-term, intensive medical care. Extracardiac factors such as disturbed parent-child interaction may enhance disturbances of growth.16 Early definitive correction of cardiac defects provides optimum conditions for successful catch-up growth and a normalization of the physical development.15 Another recently recognized, and frequently underdiagnosed problem relates to young teenagers, usually female, who present with eating disturbances associated with a disturbed body image.

The Role Of Parents In The Vocabulary Spurt And Early Grammar

Vocabulary Spurt

In one study, we assessed the role of maternal responsiveness in two contexts, play and mealtime, for children's growing vocabularies across the second year (i.e., when toddlers were 13 and 20 months Bornstein, Tamis-LeMonda, & Haynes, 1999). Here the focus was on changes to mothers' responsiveness over time in relation to changes to children's observed language production. In this investigation, measures of mothers' responsiveness and children's language at both ages and in both contexts derived from transcripts of their observed interactions.

Home And Cognitive Development

In a series of studies done in the late 1970s and early 1980s, we found that scores on the Infant-Toddler and Early Childhood versions of HOME consistently showed positive correlations with cognitive and language development from infancy through the early school years (Bradley & Caldwell, 1976a, 1976b, 1979b, 1980a, 1982, 1984b Elardo, Bradley, & Caldwell, 1975, 1977). Importantly, we found that these relations obtained for boys as well as girls, Blacks as well as Whites, and poor as well as rich (Bradley & Caldwell, 1981 Bradley, Caldwell, et al., 1989). Our findings have been corroborated by dozens of other researchers in the United States and throughout the world. Correlations between the Infant-Toddler HOME and measures of infant developmental status (usually the Bayley Scales) typically do not exceed .40 during the 1st year of life (Adams, Campbell, & Ramey, 1984 Allen, Affleck, McGrade, & McQueeney, 1984 Bakeman & Brown, 1980 Carlson, Labarba, Sclafani, & Bowers, 1986 Coll,...

HOME and Socio Emotional Development

Scores on HOME are also associated with social development. A major component of social competence is the ability of a child to enter into and sustain social relations. Bakeman and Brown (1980) followed 21 preterm and 22 full-term Black low-income children from 9 months to 3 years of age. The Responsivity scale from the Infant-Toddler HOME predicted both social participation (involvement with others) and social competence (ability to navigate the social world smoothly, gaining both material and emotional goods from others in socially acceptable ways). Other studies also indicated that the quality of the home environment in general, and Responsivity in particular, are related to adaptive social competence during early and middle childhood (Jordan, 1979 Lamb et al., 1988 Tedesco, 1981). A good example is a study of behavior problems in very low-birth weight Dutch children (Weiglas-Kuperus, Koot, Baerts, Fetter, & Sauer, 1993). They found that HOME scores at ages 1 and 3 years were...

Preoperative Strategy

Primary palliative procedure between 2 and 4 months of age,10 or between 3 and 6 months following neonatal palliation with a systemic to pulmonary artery shunt or pulmonary artery banding.11 In toddlers and older children who have been palliated earlier in life, we create a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt prior to completion of the extracardiac Fontan in the majority of cases, though on occasion we will perform the cavopulmonary shunt during the same operation as Fontan construction.

Longterm Memory Before Age Three

Current perspectives acknowledge the infant as a creature prepared from birth to begin processing and organizing incoming information in meaningful ways (e.g., Mandler, 1992 Bauer, Wiebe, Carver, Waters, & Nelson, 2003). In stark contrast, early developmental theorists perceived the capacity of infants to make sense of the environment and to meaningfully encode events as quite impoverished (James, 1950 Mandler, 1992). From this standpoint, early experiences would have little chance of enduring in memory for later conscious retrieval. Thus, most early work on infant memory development focused exclusively on short-term processes, with retention intervals under several minutes (Bornstein & Sigman, 1986 McCall, 1979 Werner & Perlmutter, 1979). Modern methodologies created for the study of infants and toddlers have revealed relatively more sophisticated cognition during these early periods, and have inspired researchers to rethink the potential for early long-term memory (e.g.,...

Imitation in the Laboratory

A series of studies by Meltzoff (1988a, 1988b, 1988c) indicate that infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months will imitate significantly more modeled actions than a control group over delays ranging from 24 hr in the youngest infants to 4 months in the oldest infants. Additional research indicates that 14-month-old infants will show delayed imitation of behavior modeled on television after a 24-hr delay. In the same study, the researchers found delayed imitation by infants of behavior modeled by an expert toddler performing a novel response after a 48-hr delay and a change in context from the experimental situation to the home setting (Hanna & Meltzoff, 1993). The basic findings of the Meltzoff group have been replicated with 6- to 30-month old infants by other researchers (see Courage & Howe, 2002, for a review).

Bilateral Visual Field Obliteration

A 15-year-old member of the high school marching band comes to your office for evaluation of hearing loss. He had multiple ear infections as an infant and toddler, and had to have myringotomy tubes inserted in his ears. Additionally, he suffers from many allergies. His hearing is diminished in the right ear. When you place a vibrating tuning fork on the top of his head, the sound lateralizes to the right ear. The name of this test is

Newborn Period And Infancy

Newborn Barlow Test

The presence of tibial torsion can be assessed in several ways one method is shown above. Have the toddler lie prone on the examination table, with the knees flexed to 90 , as shown. Note the thigh-foot axis. Usually there is 10 of internal or external rotation. The normal newborn's foot has several features that may initially concern you. These features, shown on the next page, are benign. The newborn's foot appears flat because of a plantar fat pad. There is often inversion of the foot, elevating the medial margin. Other babies will have adduction of the forefoot without inversion, called metatarsus adductus. Still others will have adduction of the entire foot. Finally, most toddlers have some pronation during early stages of weight bearing, with eversion of the foot. In all of these normal variants, the abnormal position can be easily overcorrected past midline. They all tend to resolve within a year or two. The series of illustrations on the next page shows examples of pathologic...

When the Children Cannot Yet Talk About Friendships

We define an affective relationship as one that includes feelings of affection or what would be called love in adult-child relationships. Toddler affective relationships have attributes of friendship common to the 'best friendships' which provide older children with emotional security and closeness (Howes, 1996 Howes, with Unger et al., 1992). These early friendship relationships appear to be formed in a way similar to adult-child attachment relationships (Howes, 1996). In the following section, we will examine supports for these assumptions about early friendship formation. In a similar manner to the research on structural complexity of peer interaction, the friendship studies began with the collection of observational data. Since toddler-age children cannot report on their friendships, we must use behaviors to distinguish friendship relationships from playmate relationships in prelinguistic children. This results in some discontinuity in research about friendships because later...

Prevalence And Psychological Consequences Of Exposure To Community Violence

In the preschool years, between the ages of 3-5, young children venture into the public spheres of their neighborhoods by becoming engaged in various social activities outside of their homes. Preschool children may attend a playgroup or a preschool program, play in public playgrounds, stay outdoors for longer periods of time, and visit community areas often accompanied by their mother or an older sibling. As compared to toddlers, increased mobility and higher levels of cognitive competence (Cicchetti, 1989) may afford young children a greater exposure to social events in the neighborhood, and a greater ability to explore the outside world. It is through this normative socialization process

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of very young children. There are, however, several pieces of evidence that support the idea that children who form friendships as preverbal children in child care do experience social support, trust, and intimacy within these relationships. The children who were used for the early case studies of friendship (Howes, 1981) are now young adults. Informal conversations with these children suggest that their toddler friend partner, although no longer a best friend remains a person of importance in their lives. And, as previously discussed, toddler friend pairs tend to remain stable friends. This suggests that toddler friendships function to provide affective support, rather than functioning merely as a context for play, when the child's life history allows for...

Family Income and Early Child Care

In the first 3 years of life, most child care occurs in home settings, either with relatives or family child-care providers. Data are now accumulating showing that the quality of these home settings is considerable lower for children from poverty-level families than for children of more affluent families. In a widely publicized Study of Family and Relative Care, infants and toddlers cared for by relatives (primarily grandmothers) and nonrelatives were observed. Children from low-income families received poorer quality care than those from more affluent families (Galinsky, Howes, Kontos, & Shinn, 1994).

Early And Late Childhood

Acrocyanosis Asthma

As children become older, the examination of the lungs begins to approach that used in adults. Again, it is critical for children to cooperate with this examination. Auscultation is often best accomplished when the child is barely aware of the examination (as when he is in his parent's lap). If a toddler seems fearful of your stethoscope, you might let the child play with it before touching the chest.

Synopsis Of The Novel

On return to the World State, Bernard and Lenina take Linda and John to the Bloomsbury Centre, its 4,000 rooms buzzing with the activity of turning embryos into whole predestined populations. Newly decanted babies suck down pints ofpasteurized external secretion, and the napping toddlers unconsciously listen to propaganda tapes on hygiene, erotic sexuality, and sociability. To all present Bernard presented John, the Director's son, who called him father, and Linda, his woman, who is now embarrassingly fat and old. Caught in petrified disgust, the astonished Director resigns on the spot. Everyone is curious about the savage, John, but Linda repels them. She sinks into a soma-induced trance to hide from her new reality. But Bernard revels in his new celebrity as the Savage's friend and guardian. John and Lenina go to a feelie, which John considers a base and ignoble experience. He has romantic notions of love from reading Romeo and Juliet, and having sex with Lenina would feel immoral....

Pain Intervention 101 Techniques

PCA is a computerized, self-administered delivery system first used in adults. Children as young as 5 years old can appropriately use the apparatus. This technique allows for single loading doses and continuous background infusions to be administered in addition to the PCA bolus dose (104). The use of continuous nighttime infusions added to PCA have shown improved sleep and analgesia (105). However, the use of around-the-clock, continuous background infusions have been associated with higher PCA intake (106). PCA has been adapted for use by parents and caretakers for toddlers and older children who are not cognitively or physically capable of executing the self-activated PCA demand button. PCA by proxy has been administered as nurse-controlled or parent-controlled analgesia yet has been associated with a higher incidence of side effects, with oversedation the main adverse event.

Early Childhood 1 Through 4 Years

1 year of age, the rate of physical growth slows to half that of infancy. After age 2 years, toddlers gain about 2 to 3 kg and grow 5 cm per year. Growth can proceed in spurts. Physical changes are impressive, and during a few short years, children are transformed from chubby, clumsy toddlers into leaner, more muscular preschoolers. Even more significant are the changes in motor and cognitive development. 2 years, and pedal a tricycle and jump around by 3 years. These new skills make the world a dangerous place for toddlers and pose inherent challenges during your examination. Fine motor skills develop through neurologic Cognitive and Language Development. Intellectually, a toddler makes the transition from learning about the environment through touching and looking (sensorimotor learning), to symbolic thinking, simple problem-solving, remembering songs, and imitating through play. Take advantage of these changes by making your examination seem like you are playing. Social and...

Stability of Temperament2

As long as temperament was regarded as primarily biologically-genetically driven, the logical assumption was that individual differences in temperament should be stable over time (Wilson & Ma-theny, 1986). However, with the increasing evidence on the role played by contextual factors on the expression of individual differences in temperament (Wachs & Kohnstamm, (2002), it is now more logical to expect only modest stability of temperament over time.3 Further, given changes in both the expression and measurement of temperament at different ages, it is also likely that what stability there is will take the form of heterotypic continuity, with stability occurring for the underlying structure of temperament even as the behavioral form of temperament changes (Fox et al., 2001). For the most part these predictions appear to have been confirmed. Based on parent report measures moderate stability of individual temperament dimensions appears to be the norm (Guerin et al., 2003 Kerr, Lambert,...

Emotion Regulation and Later Adaptation

The attainment of a reasonable level of emotional self-regulation can be considered a major developmental task of toddlerhood and early childhood (Kopp, 1989). Consistent with the developmental psychopathology perspective, effective negotiation of this issue should predict competence on develop-mentally salient tasks in later stages. Such continuity can be explained by the need for self-regulatory capacities for other processes such as task engagement, concentration, and maintaining interchanges with others (Shields, Cicchetti, & Ryan, 1994). Thus, emotion regulation may serve as a foundation for maintaining the homeostasis that allows individuals to engage with their environments and with others. Children who do not develop these abilities therefore would be more likely to develop intra-and interpersonal problems (Calkins, 1997b Eisenberg & Fabes, 1992). suppression (decrease in vagal tone from baseline to affect-eliciting episodes) relative to those who engaged in more social active...

Friendship As Affective Relationships

Up until this point in this chapter we have been discussing how children construct social skills and peer group social structure. We have been (almost) acting as if all dyadic relationships within the peer group were interchangeable. That is that dyads are created at random and that every possible dyad in the classroom interacts in a similar manner. And this is, of course, not true. Even the earliest of studies of the construction of peer interaction among infants (Lee, 1973) noted that babies seemed to form early preferences. And sociometric inquiry rests on the premise of differential preferences within the peer group. But are early friendships affective relationships or merely preferences Friendships are relationships based on mutual support, affection, and companionship. School age children can articulate these qualities of friendship and tell an adult whether a friendship does or does not have these qualities. Infants and toddlers and even preschoolers do not have the verbal and...

Cultural Influences On The Expression Of Individual Differences In Temperament

A similar role for culture can also be seen in regard to developmental issues like the stability of temperament. Differential stability of temperament may be seen for individuals whose trait characteristics either fit or do not fit cultural beliefs about the value of such characteristics. For example, in cultures where inhibition is valued females who were inhibited as toddlers were far more likely to be inhibited as adolescents, whereas females who were uninhibited as toddlers were far less likely to be uninhibited as adolescents (Kerr et al., 1994).

Diagnosis And Treatment

The diagnosis of AT in index cases is typically delayed until telangiectasias appear at 6 or 7 years of age (6). However, the absence of telangiectasias, immune deficits, and or elevated serum AFP do not rule out AT as a diagnosis for the toddler or young child with slowly progressive ataxia. The size of the ATM gene and the large number and even distribution of mutations along the ATM gene make molecular diagnosis difficult (see Fig. 3). As a result, sequential evaluation of children suspected of having AT is recommended, beginning with a clinical assessment of neurologic and immunologic deficits accompanied by serum AFP determination and karyotype. Further investigations include protein truncation testing and Western blot analyses of ATM protein, measurement of ATM kinase activity, colony-survival assays using lymphocytes and SSCP analysis of the ATM gene. This combined approach is thought to yield a false-negative rate of

Comprehension Questions

36.3 Which of the following injuries is most likely to be caused by abuse of a toddler 36.3 C. A posterior rib fracture is often the result of grabbing and squeezing the chest violently. It is very suspicious for abuse. A spiral fracture of the tibia is known as a toddler's fracture and is a common injury that is often confused with abuse, but not often caused by abuse. Bruises on the shins and knees and forehead injuries are common from falls while learning to walk.

Future Directions

In this chapter we have examined how the study of peer relations, what we have chosen to study, and, to some extent, what we have concluded as we studied children forming relations with peers, has been influenced by the sociocultural influences of the historical period of the research as well as the theoretical lens through which we view peers. We suspect that these joint forces will continue to influence the study of the processes by which children construct and maintain their relationships with peers. One emerging sociocultural influence on research on peer relations is the changing demographics in both urban and increasingly rural areas of the United States. There is a large influx of families from societies that generally are considered more collectivist in their values than traditional U.S. families. Within collectivist societies, there is a greater emphasis placed on the individual within the group than on the individual self. These collectivist values are not dissimilar to the...

Skeletal Injury

Accidental fractures in infants and toddlers do occur, usually as a result of falls, often from a height, but they can occasionally occur in long bones of ambulant children from twisting, running, and falling. There is usually a consistent history and a prompt presentation. Fractures cause pain and distress and are often accompanied by nonuse of the affected body part and local swelling.

Nonmaternal Care

A variety of observations about and explanations of these findings linking extensive nonmaternal care in the first year of life with elevated rates of insecure attachment have been offered. Consider first the fact that more than half of the children who experience early and extensive infant day care were classified as secure such variation in response to early day care suggests that separation per se is probably not the principal cause of the elevated rates of insecurity that have been repeatedly chronicled. Consider next that the quality of child care in the United States is known to be limited thus, elevated rates of insecurity may have as much, or more, to do with the nature of the care infants receive when cared for by someone other than mother than by the fact that mother is not providing the care. Especially notable in this regard is the fact that toddlers are more likely to develop secure attachments to those who care for them in child care when these caregivers are more...


It is also possible that this age-related increase in flexibility in use of retrieval cues is accompanied by a similar increase in the range of reminders that are effective for memory reinstatement. Developments in children's ability to use reminders to reinstate event memories may help to explain why memories for events occurring after the age of 3 are more likely to be retained in very long-term autobiographic memory as compared to memories from the infant and toddler years.

Skeletal Differences

From infancy to adulthood, humans grow in overall size, but a larger proportion of growth occurs in the extremities (legs and arms) than in the torso. To convince yourself of this, consider how short toddlers' legs look in relationship to their bodies. A final growth spurt occurs during adolescence and puberty, again with a larger proportion of growth occurring in the arms and legs than in the

Early Childhood

You may feel as if you need 10 hands and a bag of tricks to examine the ear of toddlers and young children, who are sensitive to examining the ear canal and drum and fearful because they cannot observe the procedure. With a little practice you can master this technique. Unfortunately, many young children will need to be briefly restrained during this part of the examination, which is why you may want to leave it for the end.

Case Scenario 105

Pam was 18 years old and just entering college. She had been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis when she was 6 years old. As a toddler, she had trouble gaining weight and often complained of stomachache. She was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis when she became seriously dehydrated. A sweat test for chloride was performed at that time the positive result confirmed the physician's suspicion that she had cystic fibrosis. Pam's parents helped her start chest physical therapy to clear her lungs of the thick mucus that is produced as a consequence of the disease and gave her pancreatic enzyme supplements to help her digest and absorb food at a normal rate. As Pam grew older, she monitored her own symptoms for progression of the disease. At each meal, she took pancreatic enzymes.

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