Traditional Chinese Medicine

Pure Natural Healing

More and more medical research is showing that the science behind acupuncture and reflexology actually work The Asian doctors that developed that system back in the day actually had the right idea when it came to healing the natural way! A growing amount of research is showing that that your body has the means to care for itself, and has a self-correcting system built right into it. You will be able to lower cholesterol, get rid of depression and anxiety, and banish migrants and toothaches. This ebook by Master Lim gives you all of the tools that you need in order to get rid of the problems that face you in your quest to stay healthy. Kevin Richardson has co-written the book to give you an English version of the best book on Asian medicine that there is. Why spend thousands on medical bills when you can use remedies that Really work? Read more...

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Traditional Chinese Medicine

A practitioner of traditional Chinese medicine views the patient's body as a reflection of the surrounding natural world. Many of the body's functions are described in terms of natural phenomena, such as rivers swelling, wind blowing, and so on. At the core of Chinese medicine is the concept that physical, emotional, genetic, and environmental influences exist in a balance, and that illness is a diversion from that balance. Yin and yang describe patterns of energy flowing through the body in a diametric relationship, similar to night and day and hot and cold. Yin is feminine and yang masculine, yin referring to the tissue of the organs, yang to their activities. The goal of Chinese medicine is to balance and strengthen the yin and the yang. All persons possess a unique life force, the chi (also spelled qi), which flows through the body in channels known as meridians, which have been extensively mapped. Illness occurs when a blockage or imbalance develops in the flow of the chi, and...

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And its preparation method Series traditional Chinese medicines for curing cancer of the liver and its preparation method Prescription of Jiumiduanyin pill and its preparation Health band for gallbladder Yunquye, a medicine for delivery and abortion Medicine for diabetes and its preparation Traditional Chinese medicine for curing hepatitis B Antiviral agent containing crude drug JP2003299412 Method for improving germination rate and storage period of Bupleurum falcatum by using Chinese medicine

Patents Containing Bupleurum

Infectious disease and its preparation method CN1586522 Chinese medicine capsule for treating hyperplasia cold and its preparation method CN1579511 Ready-made traditional Chinese medicine for extract preparation method CN1575810 Chinese herbal medicine for treating intractable headache CN1579428 External ready-made preparation of traditional Chinese medicine to prevent lipsotrichia and promote hair growth TW224005B Pharmaceutical composition for nasal spray in treatment of cold and fever and method for producing the same Yangchuntang Chinese Medicine (HK) Yangchuntang Chinese burn and scald and other external wounds CN1562115 Antipyretic Chinese medicine preparation for child treating cerebral infarction and hyperlipodemia CN1559535 Chinese medicine oral preparation for treating urinary system infestation and its preparation method arteriosclerosis plaque CN1557385 Chinese medicine for treating catatonic type headache CN1557373 Chinese medicine preparation for treating CN1537619...

The Editor

Sheng-Li Pan is a professor in the Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. He studies aspects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), including identification of components, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects, and mechanism of action. He has discovered and published six new species in the genus Bupleurum. He received the Academic Award from Shanghai Health Bureau in 1985, the Academic Award from Chinese TCM Ministry in 1996, and the Advanced Award on Science and Technology from the Scientific and Technical Ministry of China in 1997.


Chinese medicine for treating hepatitis B Bagged tea containing composite natural plant ingredients and its compounding process Bagged tea containing composite natural plant ingredients and its compounding process Bagged tea containing composite natural plant ingredients and its compounding process Chinese patent medicine for treating tracheitis and

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Chinese medicine for treating heart disease Medicinal patch for treating hepatism its preparation process Gallbladder and appendix antiphlogistic Chinese medicine composition for treating hepavirus disease its preparation and preparation process Chinese medicine Ruan capsule for treating mastoplasia Chinese medicine for treating cholecystitis Chanyi compound preparation for curing cirrhosis Cosmetic composition containing extracts of Bupleurum falcatum L. and or persicae semen Chinese medicine for treating hepatitis B together with aweto-cephalosporin mycelium and its preparation CN1262955 Chinese medicine powder preparation for curing leukemia

Treatment Of Acyesis

CN1253830 Chinese medicine prescription for curing hepatitis, CN1257725 Chinese medicine for treating bone fracture CA2389993 Herbal compositions for treating gastrointestinal disorders CN1294002 Chinese medicine for treating neuropathy CN1253808 Chinese medicine abortifacient CN1289611 Quick-acting Chinese medicine for treating cirrhosis and its preparation process CN1248469 Powder medicine for treating hepatitis B CN1248465 Method for producing Anruneixiao medicinal liquid CN1247079 Immersed-in-wine Chinese medicine for preventing CN1281722 Chinese medicine preparation for discharging toxic material and curing cold and its production method CN1254585 Chinese medicine for radically treating hepatitis A CN1231200 Traditional Chinese medicine composition for treating bleeding of blood disease Wu Weidong (CN) Chinese Medicines CN1223144 Weikang traditional Chinese medicine capsule CN1255339 Chinese-medicinal instant particles for promoting milk secretion and recovery of puerperant...

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Inflammation) Preparatory Chinese medicine for treating liver disease Chinese medicine for treatment of depression Medication for curing stomachache Chinese medicine preparation with the functions of promoting blood circulation, dispersing blood clots, regulating vital energy, and stopping pain Medication for curing lithiasis Production process of cancer-eliminating pearl powder CN1385191 Medicine for treating liver disease CN1385190 Medicine for treating liver disease CN1385203 Compound Chinese medicine preparation of damnacanthus preparation process CN1448163 Hepatosis-treating traditional Chinese medicine formula chronic cholecystitis and its preparation method CN1383855 Gastropathy-treating Chinese medicine CN1444955 Chinese herbal medicine for treating hepatitis CN1368380 Chinese medicine for treating hepatitis B and its CN1381250 Chinese medicine lidandishi for treating

Preface to the series

The medicinal traditions of ancient civilisations such as those of China and India have a large armamentarium of plants in their pharmacopoeias which are used throughout South-East Asia. A similar situation exists in Africa and South America. Thus, a very high percentage of the World's population relies on medicinal and aromatic plants for their medicine. Western medicine is also responding. Already in Germany all medical practitioners have to pass an examination in phytotherapy before being allowed to practise. It is noticeable that throughout Europe and the USA, medical, pharmacy and health related schools are increasingly offering training in phytotherapy.

Bacterial Type II Polyketide Synthase

It has been a long sought after goal to study the biochemistry and enzymology of the bacterial type II PKSs in vitro,because the mechanisms by which the PKSs assemble the carbon skeleton of aromatic polyketides eventually have to be studied using purified enzymes. The two major challenges in this endeavor are to obtain the entire functional PKS complex in sufficient quantity and to monitor the synthesis of the inherently labile poly- -ketone intermediates 148 , which are thought to remain enzyme-bound throughout the elongation processes until the carbon chain reaches its full length. Retrospectively, early attempts at purifying and assaying bacterial PKS could not be successful because of the lack of the fundamental information regarding the PKS complex such as (1) the nature of individual subunits, (2) the minimal number of subunits that constitute a functional complex, and (3) the involvement of ARO or CYC that make it possible to measure the PKS activity by converting the poly-...

Malonyl CoA Acyl Carrier Protein Transacylase

On the assumption that a MAT must have existed in Streptomyces species for either fatty acid or polyketide biosynthesis, Hutchinson and co-workers detected a MAT activity in a crude cell-free preparation from S. glaucescens that produces 12, using malonyl CoA and the E. coli FAS ACP as substrates 177 . They then used this MAT preparation to assay the presence of an ACP and subsequently purified two ACPs from S. glaucescens 177,178 . Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that one was the Tcm PKS ACP 177 , encoded by the tcmMgene that had already been cloned early along with the rest of the tcm gene cluster 38 . The other ACP led to the cloning of a gene cluster consisting of four orfs, including fabC that encodes the purified FAS ACP and fabD that is homologous to the E. coli fabD gene 178 . Based on the fact that FabC was the principal ACP produced constitutively in S. glaucescens 178 and that the S. glaucescens fabD gene was able to complement an E. coli fabD mutant 216,219 , this...

Chemotaxonomic Evidence of Age and Origin

Gough and co-workers noted some annular variation in THC content within particular countries of origin. Thus, compared with other parts of Africa, the THC content of Ghanaian herb seizures was appreciably lower in 1975 and 1976 but of much better quality in 1978 and Jamaican THC content was low in the 1970s but improved in the early 1980s. There is insufficient evidence to suggest whether these differences reflect changes in climate, in cultivation or in preparation of clandestine exports. The THC content of resins is usually significantly higher than that of herbal specimens but some North African resins are of lower quality than some good quality Asian herbal presentations (e.g. 'manicured Thai sticks').

Adverse Effects Of Herbal Therapy

Although protected from FDA regulation, many of the substances utilized in alternative therapy regimens have physiologic activities, and the Western medicine literature is becoming increasingly prolific regarding the adverse effects of these agents (Table 4). Adverse events can be either directly related to the alternative agent(s) used, or indirectly attributed to use of alternative therapy when they delay or replace more effective forms of conventional treatment.

Ternary Complex Models

The ternary complex model (TCM) (26,27) describes allosteric interactions between orthosteric and allosteric sites present on a single protein monomer and can also be extended to reflect other two-state interactions involving sites on adjacent proteins and the effect of signaling proteins, e.g., G-proteins on the function of the receptor. As noted by Christopoulos (25), allosteric interactions are reciprocal such that the effects of a ligand A on the binding properties of ligand B also imply an effect on the binding of ligand B on the properties of ligand A. Similarly, because GPCRs alter the conformation of G-proteins to elicit transduc-tional events and an alteration in cell function, changes in G-protein conformation and interactions alter receptor function, and this may be reflected in desensitization.


Jean Levi, 'The Body The Daoists' Coat of Arms', in Michel Feher, Ramona Nadeff, Nadia Tazi, and E. Alliez (eds.), Fragments for a History of the Human Body (New York Zone Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 1989), pt. iii, pp. 114-17. See also the comments of Marcel Mauss, Sociology and Psychology Essays, trans. Ben Brewster (1950 London Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), 122 and the sociological studies of his friend the religious historian Marcel Granet, The Religion of the Chinese People, trans. Maurice Freedman (1922 Oxford Blackwell, 1975). See also Francesca Bray, 'Chinese Medicine', in

CAM Approaches for Pediatric Pain 21 Acupuncture

7-15 years, complaining of migraine headaches (25). Of the children, 12 were treated with 10 weekly sessions of true acupuncture, with needles inserted subdermally, according to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. The 10 children in the placebo group had needles of the same size inserted in the stratum corneum once a week for 10 weeks. Children, parents, and nurse raters who administered the pain measures were all blinded to study group assignment. No children received prophylactic medications.

Agricultural Biotech

It's possible that adding a gene from a little-known species of toad in South America to the genome of chickens, for example, will result in birds with fewer feathers that are cheaper to process. However, without knowledge of the toad's existence, much less the sequence of the toad's genome, researchers would likely fail in their search for a gene with the same effect. One solution to this dilemma is to sequence the genome of known life on the planet and to catalog the findings in nucleotide and biomedical literature databases. In this way, a scientist could easily search for a trait and identify the source of the required genetic material. Furthermore, once most life on the planet is cataloged in this way, the discovery process of drug development should be streamlined as well. At that time, food and medicine will be interchangeable, following the tradition of Chinese medicine.

Evolution of the Technology

In time, the pharmacopoeia of Indian and Chinese cultures expanded to include a wide variety of herbs. Indian medicine, known as Ayurveda relied heavily on an extensive herbal formulary. Metallic compounds, along with substances derived from plants, animals, and minerals, came into common use in India around a.d. 1,000. At the time of the Dutch trade with India in the late 1600s, there were approximately 800 plants of medicinal value. However, with British colonization, the Indian tradition was suppressed, and the medical colleges established by the British taught only traditional Western medicine. Today, although Ayurvedic medicine is still practiced by some physicians in India, commercial Western medicines command virtually all of the pharmaceutical market. Chinese medicine is more popular in the West than Ayurvedic (Indian) medicine, in part because the Chinese have been more prone to absorb medical practices and pharmaceuticals from other cultures. For example, ginseng (Korea),...

In Vitro Reconstitution of Type II Polyketide Synthase

Shen and Hutchinson developed the first cell-free system for a bacterial type II PKS in 1993 and succeeded in synthesizing 32 from acetyl and malonyl CoA by the Tcm PKS in vitro 182 . Since then, similar experiments were reported by Khosla and co-workers for the Act PKS 181 . More recently, both the Act PKS 173,184 and the Tcm PKS 183 have been reconstituted in vitro from individually purified components, making it possible to explore many of the mechanistic details of type II PKSs that have eluded in vivo studies in the past. Shen and Hutchinson 182 made cell-free preparations from an S. glauces-cens null mutant bearing plasmids expressing various combinations of the tcmJKLMN genes. PKS activity was assayed through the synthesis of 32 from acetyl and malonyl CoA,whose identity was authenticated by its enzymatic conversion to 33 and 35, catalyzed by the purified Tcm F2 CYC 94,229 and Tcm F1 mono oxygenase, respectively (Fig. 5) 229, 230 . Tcm F2 was also synthesized upon admixture of...

Polyketide Aromatase and Cyclase

Although genetic studies have identified a number of putative polyketide AROs 85 - 89 and CYCs 36,49,84 - 91 , these studies failed to reveal any mechanistic insights for these enzymatic aldol or Claisen condensations. (ARO and CYC are often used interchangeably, and there is little biochemical data to separate them into two subgroups of enzymes.) Biochemical characterizations of these enzymes are difficult because the presumed substrates, whether they are linear or monocyclic poly-b-ketones, are not directly available. Tcm F2 CYC 94 and TcmN 96 are the only polyketide CYCs that have been purified and characterized so far. Tcm F2 CYC catalyzes the cyclization of 32 to Tcm F1 (33) (Fig. 5), a reaction that closely resembles the intramolecular aldol and Claisen condensations involved in the synthesis of polycyclic aromatic polyketides. Unlike the other substrates of polyketide CYCs, 32 is stable enough that it can be isolated 229 . Shen and Hutchinson purified the Tcm F2 CYC from S....

Acyl Carrier Protein

The first sets of data demonstrating the necessity of ACP for the function of a bacterial type II PKS came from targeted gene replacements in the act cluster 155,156 . Either deletion or introduction of a frame shift mutation into the ACP gene of the act cluster in S. coelicolor resulted in mutants whose polyketide production was completely abolished 155 . Site-directed mutagenesis further confirmed specifically that Ser-42 of Act ACP is essential for the PKS activity, which is the attachment site for the 4'-phosphopantetheine group 155 . Similar experiments have already been carried out for FAS ACPs 207 . Alternatively, overexpression of the tcmM gene in S. glaucescens dramatically stimulated the production of various biosynthetic precursors of 12, presumably by increasing the malonyl-ACP concentration, and hence the overall activity of the Tcm PKS complex 151 . These conclusions were further supported by in vitro biochemical investigations. Indeed, removal of the TcmM ACP by...

FiKetoacyi Synthase

Functional analysis of the PKS KS (also called KSa, 183 ), encoded by actI-ORF1, tcmK, or their homologs,was primarily based on the extensive knowledge of the FAS KS enzymes, which have been well characterized biochemically and genetically 22-24,222,223 . The crystal structure of E. coli FAS KS II has been determined recently, revealing the molecular architecture of a KS enzyme 224 . Like fatty acid biosynthesis, KSa catalyzes the decarboxylative condensation between the growing poly- -ketone intermediates and malonyl-ACP. One could envisage that the acyl group of acyl-ACP is first transfered to the Cys residue at the active site of the KSa, resulting in a thioester malonyl-ACP is then decarboxylated to generate a carbanion that nucleophilically attacks the thio-ester to complete one cycle of elongation. this Cys in ActI-ORF1 to the Cys169Glu mutant 158 and in TcmK to the Cys173Ala or Cys173Ser mutant 163 completely abolished polyketide biosynthesis, confirming that the Cys of KS...

Galens Hygiene

Galen's epic contribution to Western medicine came in the confident days of the mid-Empire. He was born in the reign of Hadrian in ad 129, lived his mature life under the great philosopher-emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-80), and died several emperors later in c.216. His professional influence from writing a corpus of over 350 titles cannot be underestimated in total about as much as all other Greek medical writings put together. As he said, Hippocrates 'staked the way, but I made it passable'. He was an expert anatomist who left a continuing legacy of heroic bloodletting in Western medicine but he was equally concerned to make his mark as a dietitian. Galen's long-lasting influence on hygiene came largely from his famous work De Sanitate Tuenda ('On the Healthy Life') but also, from the way in which he extended and dominated the field of hygienic medical classification in general, as a teacher of 'the best of the young physicians'.34 It was Galen who absorbed Plato's dualist philosophy...

Expression System

These organisms are not well characterized genetically. The S. coelicolor-pRM5-CH999-based host-vector system, developed by Hopwood and co-workers 101 , is one of the best systems used in engineered biosynthesis. S. coelicolor CH999 is derived from S. coelicolor A3(2) by deleting the entire act gene cluster to reduce endogenous polyketide biosynthesis. pRM5, a Streptomyces-E. coli shuttle vector, contains a divergently paired actI and actIII promoter whose activity is developmentally regulated by the ActII-ORF4 protein. More recently, Ziermann and Betlach have engineered several S. lividans equivalents of S. coelicolor CH999,such as S. lividansK4-114 and K4-155 258 ,which can be transformed with pRM5-based plasmids with superior frequency. Alternatively, Simpson and co-workers demonstrated the utility of the thiostrepton induction system, designed for Streptomyces by Bibb and co-workers 259 ,in S. coelicolor CH999 for engineered biosynthesis 173 . This system provides a convenient...

Chain Length

The carbon chain length of an aromatic polyketide is determined by the KSa KSb pair of the minimal PKS complex, and substitution of the ACP subunit of a minimal PKS complex with a heterologous ACP will not alter the chain length specificity 95,101,157,165 . So far production of aromatic polyketides with chain length ofC-10 100 ,C-14 100 ,C-16,C-18,C-20,C-22,and C-24 have all been demonstrated by engineered PKSs. By implication, engineered PKSs should soon provide access to aromatic polyketides with other chain lengths as the total number of cloned PKS genes increases exponentially. Thus,for engineered synthesis of octaketides, one could choose the KSa KSb pair from the minimal PKS of act 80, 95,101 , fren 80,161 , or gra 53 . The KSa KSb from the minimal PKS of fren is the only one known so far to produce a nonaketide 80, 159, 161 . For the production of decaketides, one has the choice of KSa KSb from the minimal PKS of dps 153,162,163 , jad 162 , mtm 150,154,160 , oct 152 , or tcm...


The minimal PKSs alone fold the nascent linear poly- -ketone at C-9 position predominantly and initiate C-7 C-12 condensation for the first ring cyclization (Fig. 11, path A). Such regiospecific folding and cyclization have been demonstrated for the linear polyketide intermediates with chain length ranging from C-14 100 ,C-16 80,86-88,95,101,159,161 ,C-18 88,159,161 ,C-20 80,88,95, 96,101,154,160 , C-22 100 , to C-24 100 . Whether or not these processes are catalyzed by the minimal PKS is still an open question. Spontaneous cyclizations have been proposed to account for metabolites resulting from other folding and cyclization patterns 80, 86, 88, 95, 96,100 . Since Tcm PKS 95, 96 , Mtm PKS 150,154,160 , and possibly WhiE PKS 100 fold the linear poly- -ketone at C-11 and catalyze the first ring cyclization by C-9 C-14 condensation in the wildtype organisms, it is very unlikely for their minimal PKSs to have an intrinsic regiospecificity for C-9 folding and C-7 C-12 first ring...


Europe is the original home of western biotech, including the modern pharmaceutical industry. For example, James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA in Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic used in Western medicine, while working at St. Mary's Hospital in London. Digitalis, the first drug for heart conditions, was first used in the West by the Scottish doctor William Withering.

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine

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