How to read waveforms

Systolic Spikes Brain Death

The flow waveform represents time dependence of blood flow velocity on cardiac activity 12 . Waveform recognition during Doppler examination starts with hearing the flow signal followed by visual analysis of the signal appearance on screen. Steps to optimize flow signals depend largely on this immediate recognition of the waveform and sonographer skills. Reading any ultrasound findings starts with orientation on screen and identification of machine settings. For Doppler examination, these...

TCD examination technique

Basilar Artery Doppler

A single-gate spectral transcranial Doppler TCD was introduced by Rune Aaslid in 1982 to non-invasively assess cerebral hemodynamics 1 , The four 'windows' for insonation Figure 2.1 are temporal, orbital, suboccipital and submandibular 2 , The transtemporal approach allows velocity measurements in the middle MCA , anterior ACA , posterior PCA and communicating arteries 1-5 . The transorbital approach is used to insonate the ophthalmic artery OA and internal carotid artery ICA siphon. The...