Bacterial And Virus Infection

There is a well-known link between bacterial or virus infection and cancer risk (Table 1). The key determinants of this risk are bacterial and virus infection-induced inflammation. This risk, however can be identified by direct detection of bacteria or virus in the blood circulation, which may also serve as an early marker for early neoplasm. It has been recently recognized that viruses and other pathogens play an important role in the etiology of human cancers (8). In other words, the...

Inflammation Marker

Inflammation, especially chronic inflammation, is a significant factor in the development of solid tumor malignancies (2). Several inflammation markers, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and amyloid protein, can be detected in the blood circulation and serve as risk factors for early neoplasm. CRP is nonspecific but is the most sensitive marker of inflammation. IL-6, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha induce the synthesis of CRP in hepatocytes. Its role as a predictor...

Nuclear Matrix Proteins

Nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) were originally thought to be primarily an architectural protein network responsible for maintaining nuclear shape but now are known as a dynamic family of proteins that has a vital role in such fundamental cell processes as steroid hormone binding, gene transcription, and protein translation (Table 6). In the past, NMP was not expected to be released from the nucleus of tumor cells in quantities sufficient to be measured by conventional immunological techniques....

Scc

Squamous cell has been found in tumors such as cervical cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, and esophageal carcinoma. The tumor marker specifically associated with squamous cell is squamous carcinoma antigen SCC antigen , which is a subfraction of TA-4. TA-4 was purified from squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the uterine cervix, which is also a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approx 48 kDa. Elevated serum SCC has been detected in patients with cervical, lung, head and neck, and...

Advantages And Limitations Of Conventional Tumor Makers In Serum

The development of tumor specific epitopes or molecules has been elusive in spite of research efforts in science and medicine. Table 1 shows the overall characteristics of popular tumor markers in serum 16-25 , selected among over 100 markers reported in the past 50 yr 4 . CEA 1 was identified from tumor tissue of colorectal cancer patients through serological adsorption using adjacent normal tissue, a technique similar to the subtraction method using gene cloning. In terms of sensitivity and...

Carcinoembryonic Proteins

Carcinoembryonic proteins are proteins that can be detected in high concentration in the fetal tissue, are absent in the normal adult tissue but reappear in an elevated concentration in tumor tissue. Originally, they were called fetal tumor antigens and were latter changed to carcinoembrionic proteins because they are not necessarily immunogenic. A list of carcinoembryonic proteins is shown in Table 3. Placental alkaline phosphatase the Regan isoenzyme could be one of the earliest, if not the...

Ca 724

From Hybritech San Diego, CA Because the monoclonal antibody recognizes only the epitope, not the entire molecule, monoclonal tumor marker assays may react with different molecules as long as they both express the same epitope. For example, the antigen purified from the cell membrane for CA 19-9 is a ganglioside, whereas the molecule circulating in the patients' sera is a glycoprotein, However, because both molecules express the CA 19-9 epitope, consequently, these two different molecules are...