TGFa And Tgfa1

Cytokines, growth factors, and hormones are the primary driving force for most biological reactions. The elevation of cytokines is likely an early event in tumorigensis (33). The measurement of cytokines such as TGF-a and TGF-a1 can be potentially useful for the early detection of tumors. TGF-a/EGFR autocrine signaling plays an important role in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), and upregulation of TGF-a and EGFR have been suggested to be an early event in SCCHN carcinogenesis (34). Expression of

Table 2

Circulating Oncoproteins That Could be Used as Early Markers

Cancer Corresponding Genes

Colorectal APC, ras, DCC

Stomach tpr-met, ras

Breast ras, c-erbB-2

Endometrial ras

Pancreatic cancer in melanoma-prone families p16INK4

Adapted from ref. 69.

TGF-a1 levels was found higher in low grade and early stage of bladder transitional cell carcinoma than in high grade and advanced stage tumors. It is suggested that TGF-a1 expression might be specific to early stage human bladder cancer (35).

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