Understanding Children Ebook

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

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Do Child Care Arrangements and Structured Out of School Activities Mediate Poverty Effects

Children from low-income families are most likely to receive home-based and low-quality child care and less likely to participate in center-based care and structured out of school activities. These patterns point to working poor and near-poor families as those whose children may be most at risk for extended exposure to poor-quality care centers and less likely to be involved in structured activities that may lead to the enrichment and development of skills and competencies. Correlational, longitudinal, and experimental research also identifies the quality of child care and participation in organized activities as important contributors to children's intellectual and academic development and probably to social-emotional competence as well. The next step in testing a media-tional model is to determine whether features of child care and the types of out of school activities account for the relations of family poverty to children's outcomes. The evidence available is somewhat conflicting....

Poverty And Child Development

Poor children are more likely to experience problems with school readiness and academic performance, and are at least twice as likely to be kept back in school as children from higher income families (see Corcoran, 1995 Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 1997a Haveman & Wolfe, 1994 National Center for Children in Poverty, 1999). Material deficiencies related to poverty (e.g., malnutrition, inadequate health and child care, homelessness or unsafe housing conditions and neighborhoods, and insufficient schools) have detrimental effects on children's motivation and ability to learn, and can contribute to social and emotional difficulties, hamper learning, academic performance, and cognitive development (Korenman, Miller, & Sjaastad, 1995 Kotch & Shackelford, 1989). In adolescence, poverty or economic hardship predicts delinquency (Sampson & Laub, 1994) and depression and loneliness (Lempers, Clark-Lempers, & Simons, 1989). There are several problems with the threshold. A family's...

Family Income and Early Child Care

The effects of poverty on children may be mediated not only by parents and the home environment, but by the early care and educational environments in which many children spend time. Most American children from all income levels spend significant amounts of time in nonmaternal care during their early years. A 1999 Survey by the National Survey of America's Families shows that 73 of children under age 5 with employed parents were in nonparental child-care arrangements, primarily center-based care and care by relatives (Sonenstein, Gates, Schmidt, Bolshun, 2002). The work requirements set forth by the 1996 welfare law dramatically increased the number of children who require care while parents are working. Whereas the AFDC-based welfare system was originally intended to allow single mothers to remain at home to care for young children, the new TANF-based system is motivated by the goal of making single mothers economically self sufficient. As a result, low-income parents, especially...

Disentangling Concepts Emotional Control Versus Regulation

Others, theorists, notably Kopp (1982) and Block and Block (1980), have made distinctions between emotion control and emotion regulation. Kopp (1982), for example, discussed self-control and self-regulation as stages in the child's development of behavior regulation. In the stage of self-control, the child has the ability to comply with the caregiver's demands and directives in the absence of the caregiver. Though emitted by the child, the behavior is rigid, conforming to the original directive. In contrast, the stage of self-regulation involves the flexible guiding of behavior. The child's behavior at this point is actively and flexibly adjusted to meet the demands of new situations. We concur with this distinction between control and regulation however, we do not see these as developmental stages but, rather, as a continuum of regulation which is a function both of development and individual differences among children. While for Kopp (1982) the stage of self-control is not...

Emotion Management Versus Emotional Integration

Our theory that children move toward more autonomous regulation does not imply that they increasingly manage their emotions apart from others. Autonomous self-regulation of emotion is not synonymous with regulation that is independent from others or is accomplished alone. Autonomous regulation may actively involve others. In fact, emotion regulation can be conceptualized as a mutual process in which caretakers and children influence each other in ongoing ways. Such mutual regulation is a quality of close relationships and is the context within which children develop regulatory strategies (Cole, Teti, & Zahn-Waxler, 2003).

Caregiver Differences

A number of researchers have conceptualized emotion regulation as developing within the context of the parent-child relationship (e.g., Gianino & Tronick, 1988). Parent-child interaction involves mutual regulation in which caregiver and child each modulate the affect of the other (e.g., Tronick, 1989). The parent-child context may be characterized as more unresponsive and poorly coordinated in which case, the parent fails to recognize the child's emotional needs or ignores the child's existing capabilities or smoothly coordinated with matching of parent and child affect (Field, 1994).

The Pennsylvania Child And Family Development Project

The Minnesota group's early research validating classifications of attachment security based on behavior in the Strange Situation proved to be extremely important in shaping my investigatory endeavors. Having received only minimal training in attachment theory as a graduate student at Cornell University in the mid-1970s, but a great deal on the role of family, community, cultural and historical context in shaping human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1978), I found the prospect of integrating these two distinct research traditions pregnant with opportunity. In fact, because my doctoral research had focused upon parenting and infant development, with a special concern for fathering as well as mothering and husband-wife as well as parent-child relationships (Belsky, 1979a,b), it proved rather easy to extend my research horizon to incorporate ideas from attachment theory into my ecologically-oriented program of research on early human experience in the family. What was principally required...

Mothering And Attachment Security

Like others, I was fascinated by Ainsworth's (1973) sensitivity hypothesis and used my first longitudinal study of marital change across the transition to parenthood to examine the relation between mothering observed on three occasions during the first year of the infant's life and infant-mother attachment security assessed at 12 months. In this study, 56 Caucasian mothers and their infants from working- and middle-class Caucasian families residing in and around the semi-rural central Pennsylvania community of State College where Penn State University is located were observed at home when infants were 1, 3, and 9 months of age. During each observation period, mothers were directed to go about their everyday household routine, trying as much as possible to disregard the presence of the observer. This naturalistic observational approach is one that I have used in all the research to be described. In order to record maternal and infant behavior, we noted the presence or absence every 15...

The Developmental Sequelae Of Infantmother Attachment Security

In addition to affording an opportunity to evaluate the effects of early child care on infant-mother attachment security, data collected as part of the NICHD Study enabled me to explore individual differences in the future social and cognitive functioning of some 1,000 children studied in the course of investigating the long-term consequences of early child care experience. Drawing upon data gathered when children were 3, I examined two separate issues with respect to the developmental sequelae of early attachment security. Ever since the Minnesota investigators whose work was summarized earlier in this chapter started to chronicle the developmental consequences of attachment security and insecurity, demonstrating that early attachment predicted multiple aspects of later child development, there has been confusion about the developmental process by which early security comes to be related to later child functioning. Although some have mistakenly attributed to students of attachment...

Friendship As Affective Relationships

Sociocultural influences also played a role in the research interest in friendships between very young children. When infants and toddlers had daily experiences within the stable peer groups of child care, parents and child care teachers began to notice that the children had preferences among their peers (Hartup, 1983 Rubenstein & Howes, 1976, 1979 Rubin, 1980). These preferential playmate relationships appeared to parents and teachers as friendships. Teachers and parents reported that these emerging friendships helped children separate from their parents at the beginning of the child care day. The children would greet the preferred peer and join in play with him or her as part of the ritual for parents saying good-bye. In the following sections, we will discuss the process of friendship formation in very young children and the functions of these early friendships.

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

A very significant development in reminding also occurs around 3 years of age which allows for even greater flexibility in memory reinstatement. In addition to physical and representational reminders, by three years of age children are engaging in verbal conversations about past events with their parents (Fivush, 1991 Hudson, 1990b Nelson, 1993 Nelson & Fivush, 2000, 2004). Although children begin talking about the past sometime between 16 and 20 months (Eisenberg, 1985), children under three years of age show little evidence of being able to use language alone to reinstate event memories. When they engage in joint reminiscing between the ages of 2 to 3, however, conversations about past events provide an important reinstatement context for autobiographic memories. Several studies have shown that participation in parent-child conversations about past events enhances children's event recall, especially when parents provide complex and elaborate accounts of events (McCabe &...

Parental Relationships and Childrens Peer Relations

In addition, there is very little previous research investigating how mothers respond to their children's engaging in, or being victimized by social aggression. To date, we have no knowledge of any maternal behaviors related to children's social aggression. Presently, there is no systematic study examining how much mothers know of their child's involvement in social aggression, nor about specific maternal reactive or instructive behaviors related to social aggression. Investigating these variables may inform our understanding of why some children develop and utilize these behaviors more than others. An important next step in understanding the origins of social aggression is the comprehensive investigation of specific parenting characteristics and aspects of the family environment that may contribute to these behaviors in children.

Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

In one version of gender schema theory, Bem (1981) proposes that children develop gender schemas by virtue of the pervasive gender messages in society and that sex-typing occurs when children's self-concept and self-esteem gets assimilated into gender schemas. Interestingly, Bem's theory also focuses on individual differences in the degree of being sex-typed. She asserts that individual differences schemas and sexism schemas can replace gender schemas when children are encouraged to process information according to the variability within groups and the historical roots and consequences of sex discrimination (Bem, 2000).

An Ecological Model Of Human Development

Over the past decade, there has been a surge of research directed at understanding the ways in which multiple settings or contexts influence child development (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Klebanov, & Sealand, 1993 Burton, Allison, & Obeidallah, 1995 Seidman, 1991). This research has indicated that contexts such as families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods exert an important influence on

Historical Background

Another source of evidence comes from Condon's (1987) ethnography on Inuit adolescents in the Canadian Arctic. Condon explored conceptions of the transition to adulthood by asking young people in their teens to assign life stage categories to various people in the community and explain the reason for their designations. Their responses reflected a variety of criteria for the transition to adulthood, including marriage, parenthood, chronological age, and employment. Most important was establishing a permanent pair-bond by moving into a separate household with a prospective spouse a marriagelike relationship, but not necessarily involving a formal ceremony or legal tie. Chronological age also mattered young people living with a prospective spouse but remaining in the parental household of one partner or the other were considered adults if they were beyond their teen years.

Theoretical And Empirical Considerations

Specifically, Scheer et al. (1994) surveyed adolescents aged 13-19 about the criteria they viewed as marking the transition to adulthood. Participants were asked to mark one of eight options as the most important factor for them in becoming adults, with the options based on a previous interview study (Scheer & Palkovitz, 1995). The top three responses were taking responsibility for my actions, making my own decisions, and financial independence having a job. Legal age thresholds and role transitions such as marriage, parenthood, and finishing education ranked low.

Financial Independence

Although independent decision making and financial independence rank high as criteria for the transition to adulthood, and both have connotations of independence from parents, it is interesting to note that several studies of relationships with parents among adolescents and emerging adults emphasize that these forms of independence do not signify emotional separation from parents. This literature stresses that autonomy (independence of thought and behavior) and relatedness (emotional closeness and support) are complementary rather than opposing dynamics in parent-child relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood in the American middle class (Arnett, 2004 Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O'Connor, 1994 Ryan & Lynch, 1989 O'Connor, Allen, Bell, & Hauser, 1996). In fact, it is a consistent finding in these studies that young people who are more self-reliant also report closer relationships to their parents. In the present study, this is reflected in the finding that not deeply...

Future Directions

And what of the rest of the world, the vast regions and diverse areas not discussed in this chapter Africa, Asia, Central America, Eastern Europe Clearly there is much that remains to be discovered about how young people around the world think about what it means to be an adult. Of particular interest are the conceptions of adulthood that exist among young people in traditional, tribal cultures that are as yet little touched by globalization or industrialization. Here is where the sharpest contrast may be found to the individualistic conception of adulthood favored by many young people in industrialized societies. Many of these cultures are more collectivistic in their values than industrialized countries are, and their criteria for adulthood may be expected to vary accordingly, perhaps with greater emphasis on marriage, parenthood, and culture-specific roles that entail obligations to others. We can only speculate at this point, but this is certainly an important and compelling topic...

The Broader Ecology Of Attachment Security

Belsky Process Model 1984

Through this point I have considered what might be referred to as classical determinants of attachment security, namely those considered in most developmental theorizing about the origins of secure and insecure attachment (Belsky, Rosenberger, & Crnic, 1995a). But an ecological perspective on human development, one that underscores the fact that the parent-child dyad is embedded in a family system (Belsky, 1981), which is itself embedded in a community, cultural, and even historical context (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), suggests that if one wants to account for why some infants develop secure and others insecure attachments to mother, father, or even child-care worker, then there is a need to look beyond the proximate determinants of mothering and temperament. Toward this end, we undertook a series of inquires using data collected as part of our longitudinal studies based upon a contextual model of the determinants of parenting that I advanced more than a decade ago which highlights the...

The Parenting Environment

The parenting environment is best understood not only on the basis of the activities and objects it contains or generates, but also on the basis of its instrumentality for child care and child rearing (Korosec-Serafty, 1985). For individual parents there is a sense of boundary to the spaces where parenting takes place, but what actually constitutes the boundary varies across parents and time depending on an array of cultural, familial, personal, and child factors (Belsky, 1984 Bronfenbrenner, 1995). In effect, what is appropriated to the idea of the home environment is the meaning of the acts, objects, and places connected to parental caregiving. Different families may utilize different geographic settings to be part of the parenting environment (e.g., the street beside the house, the backyard, a neighborhood park). The parenting environment encompasses the locations where the activities of parental caregiving take place (Rapoport, 1985).

HOME and Socio Emotional Development

Findings by Bakeman and Brown (1980) Lamb et al. (1988) Erickson, Stroufe, and Egeland (1985) Mink and Nihira (1987) Bradley, Caldwell, Rock, Barnard, Gray, et al. (1989), Caughy, DiPietro & Strobino, 1994, and Bradley and Corwyn (2000, 2001) suggested that particular parenting practices may interact with both particular child characteristics (e.g., quality of attachment, difficult temperament, self-efficacy beliefs, level of disability) and broader ecological factors (e.g., marital quality, support from extended family, participation in day care, family conflict, overall family style) to affect the course of social development. Moreover, the study by Plomin, Loehlin, and DeFries (1985) showing little relation between HOME and behavior problems in adopted children but a significant, yet small (.23), relation for nonadopted children suggests that genetic factors may play a role. Perhaps it would be fair to characterize studies of parenting child development relations done prior to...

Economic Conditions and Welfare Policy

Economists and scholars concerned with welfare policy have been concerned primarily with how economic conditions and policies influence adults' work, income, and life choices and, secondarily, with how these aspects of parents' lives affect their children (e.g., Hauser & Sweeney, 1997 Haveman & Wolfe, 1994 see Foster 2003 for economists' approaches to child development). One question they often pose is, how important is family income per se, above and beyond the other factors associated with poverty (e.g., depression, education level) To what extent are the correlates of poverty due to factors other than income (e.g., single mother families, low parent education) Some argue that how children develop is based less on monetary resources and more on parenting practices and skills, role modeling, moral character, and other familial characteristics. Some believe the solution to poverty is to provide income to the poor rather than try to change their family structures, education...

Family Process Models

Bronfenbrenner's (1995) bioecological theory and Belsky's (1984) process model of parenting have provided useful frameworks for guiding research on parenting and child development. During the 1990s, several scholars have provided additional framing for those interested in more fully delineating how the resources available to families (or lack thereof) are implicated in parenting and child functioning (Conger, Wallace, Simons, McLoyd, & Brody, 2002 McLoyd, 1990). Generically, these frameworks can be organized under the rubric, family process models of parenting. They attempt to explicate how the resources available to parents affect parental mood, expectations, and mental health, which in turn affect quality of parenting (i.e., a cycle of exchanges between parent and child) and how that helps shape the course of behavioral development. In these models, very specific mechanisms linking the availability of resources to child adaptive functioning are stipulated. This has the advantage...

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

The empirical literature on racial ethnic socialization has, in part, focused on understanding the nature and content of the racial ethnic socialization messages that parents transmit to their children. Many of these studies have utilized in-depth interviews with African American and other ethnic minority parents to identify the most prominent themes that emerge when parents are asked to consider the role of race and ethnicity in their parenting practices (e.g., Marshall, 1995 Thornton, Chatters, Taylor, & Allen, 1990). In this section, we attempt to describe more fully the different types of racial ethnic socialization messages that parents may communicate and the consequences of such messages for children's adaptation and well being. These include (a) emphasizing racial and ethnic pride, traditions, and history (termed cultural socialization) (b) promoting an awareness of racial prejudice and discrimination (termed preparation for bias) (c) issuing cautions and warnings about...

Midgley And Adler 1984 Reference

T., Quay, H. C., & Conners, C. K. (1991). National survey of problems and competencies among four to sixteen year olds. Monographs for the Society of Research in Child Development, 56(3). Alexander, K. L., & Entwise, D. (1988). Achievement in the first two years of school Patterns and processes. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(2, Serial No. 218). Alexander, K. L., Dauber, S. L., & Entwisle, D. R. (1993). First-grade classroom behavior Its short- and long-term consequences for school performance. Child Development, 64, 801-803. Asher, S. R., Hymel, S., & Renshaw, P. D. (1984). Loneliness in Children. Child Development, 55, 1456-1464. Burhans, K. K., & Dweck, C. S. (1995). Helplessness in early childhood The role of contingent worth. Child Development, 66, 1719-1738. Butler, R. (1989a). Interest in the task and interest in peers' work A developmental study. Child Development, 60, 562-570. Butler, R. (1989b)....

When the Children Cannot Yet Talk About Friendships

We define an affective relationship as one that includes feelings of affection or what would be called love in adult-child relationships. Toddler affective relationships have attributes of friendship common to the 'best friendships' which provide older children with emotional security and closeness (Howes, 1996 Howes, with Unger et al., 1992). These early friendship relationships appear to be formed in a way similar to adult-child attachment relationships (Howes, 1996). In the following section, we will examine supports for these assumptions about early friendship formation. This definition was first used in a year-long longitudinal study of five peer groups (Howes, 1983). The children ranged in age from 10 months to 5 years. Each peer group was composed of same-age children. Eight times over the course of the year, we observed each child's interaction with every potential partner in the group. These observations were used to identify friend pairs. To test the assertion that toddler...

Prevalence And Psychological Consequences Of Exposure To Community Violence

Based on the community violence studies of the early 1990s, between 44-82 of school-aged children and youth are exposed to community violence, depending on definitional criteria, methodology, and sample characteristics (Overstreet, 2000 Stein, Jaycox, Kataoka, Rhodes, & Vestal, 2003). According to the early studies, by the end of elementary school, almost all children residing in high crime innercity areas of Washington and New Orleans had heard (98 ) or witnessed (90 ) moderate to severe levels of violent occurrences (Richters & Martinez, 1993 Osofsky, Wewers, Hann, & Fick, 1993). School-aged children exposed to community violence are at risk for an array of problematic behavior including lower self-competence (Farver, Ghosh, & Garcia, 2000), high levels of distress (Martinez & Richters, 1993), depression (Durant, Getts, Cadenhead, Emans, & Woods, 1995), post-traumatic stress disorder (Fitzpatrick & Boldizar, 1993 Jaycox, Stein, Kataoka, Wong, Fink, Escudero,...

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Can peers provide other child experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy Do children who grew up together sharing the common resources of the child care center have a different kind of social interaction than acquaintances Do cross-sex peers and cross-ethnic peers who became friends in the context of child care form nontraditional relationships Each of these questions describes a potential function of friendship experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy a context for mastering social interaction and a context for engaging with children who are unlike the self. The first of these functions has received the most research attention research on the third function is just emerging. We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of very young children. There are, however, several pieces of evidence...

Potential Explanations for the Decreasing Age of Pubertal Onset

(Graber, Brooks-Gunn, & Warren, 1995 Moffitt, Caspi, Belsky, & Silva, 1992 Surbey, 1990). Lower warmth in parent-child relationships has been associated with earlier age at menarche after controlling for the effect of maternal age at menarche and level of breast development (Graber et al., 1995). Father's absence in the childhood years has been predictive of earlier maturation (Ellis & Garber, 2000 Surbey, 1990). In girls not living with their biological parents, the presence of a stepfather rather than the absence of a father was more strongly associated with earlier pubertal maturation (Ellis & Garber, 2000). A Polish study found that age of menarche in girls who experienced stressful family dysfunction was 0.4 years earlier than age of menarche in girls from families free of major trauma. Mechanisms for the relationship between family stress and early puberty are not clear. Estrogens may play a role, as there is an increasing body of evidence showing effects of stress...

Social Experiences

In short, a mother's tendency to talk to her children about mental states, to be mind minded in Meins' terms, may be important to theory of mind primarily because it reveals psychological sensitivity toward her child (Harris, in press). Mothers of securely attached children develop ways of communicating that promote a sense of agency and independence in their children (DeRosnay & Harris,

Selfworth Theory

Because children spend so much time in classrooms and are evaluated so frequently there, Covington argued that they must protect their sense of academic competence in order to maintain their sense of self-worth. One way to accomplish this goal is by using those causal attribution patterns that enhance one's sense of academic competence and control attributing success to ability and effort and failure to insufficient effort (Covington & Omelich, 1979 Eccles et al., 1982). Attributing failure to lack of ability is a particularly problematic attribution that students usually try to avoid. However, school evaluation, competition, and social comparison make it difficult for many children to maintain the belief that they are competent academically. Covington (1992) discussed the strategies many children develop to avoid appearing to lack ability. These include procrastination, making excuses, avoiding challenging tasks, and most importantly, not trying. Although...

Nonmaternal Care

A variety of observations about and explanations of these findings linking extensive nonmaternal care in the first year of life with elevated rates of insecure attachment have been offered. Consider first the fact that more than half of the children who experience early and extensive infant day care were classified as secure such variation in response to early day care suggests that separation per se is probably not the principal cause of the elevated rates of insecurity that have been repeatedly chronicled. Consider next that the quality of child care in the United States is known to be limited thus, elevated rates of insecurity may have as much, or more, to do with the nature of the care infants receive when cared for by someone other than mother than by the fact that mother is not providing the care. Especially notable in this regard is the fact that toddlers are more likely to develop secure attachments to those who care for them in child care when these caregivers are more...

Welfare Receipt

Even if we agree that family income and material resources affect child development, there are many questions about the pathways and processes by which these effects take place. What experiences occur in children's worlds as a result of poverty or affluence And, what are some of the important individual differences in the experience of poverty that lead to better or worse outcomes for children Two theoretical models provide hypotheses about environmental influences associated with poverty one based on resources and one positing on socialization processes (Huston, 2002). Both emphasize the environments of poverty as links between income and child development. In the following section, we ask whether family economic resources predict the socialization environments in which children develop. If so, to what extent do these socialization environments mediate the effects of economic resources on child outcomes We examine three socialization contexts family, child care, and out of school...


Although longitudinal and correlational studies have demonstrated that parenting practices mediate the effects of poverty, experimental studies of welfare and employment policies, including the New Hope study, consistently show little or no evidence that employment and income changes affect parenting practices. Instead, these experimental studies suggest that participation in programs such as New Hope affects the type and quality of child care and out of school activities children engage in, and that these are the pathways by which policies that increase income and offer child-care resources affect children's developmental outcomes. Poverty predicts the amount, type, and quality of nonmaternal care that children receive, and the amount and types of out of school activities in which they participate. Children from low-income families are more likely to receive home-based and low-quality child care and less likely to participate in center-based care and structured out of school...


The final set of items included 3 items that assess egalitarianism (e.g., How often have you told your child have your parents told you .People are all equal, no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from.), 2 items that assess cultural socialization (e.g., How often have you told your child have your parents told you You should be proud to be insert racial ethnic group .), and 3 items that assess preparation for bias (e.g., How often have you told your child have your parents told you racial ethnic group people are more likely to be treated unfairly or poorly than are other people.). Several issues merit attention in this regard. First, although Egalitarianism and Cultural Socialization are conceptually distinct, they were not empirically distinct in the present sample, as revealed by a principal axes factor analysis. Notably, Hughes (2003) also found Egalitarianism and Cultural Socialization were indistinguishable empirically in a sample of urban African American...

Test Anxiety

The nature of anxiety may also change with age. Typically, researchers in this area distinguish between two components of anxiety a worry component and an emotional physical component. Wigfield and Eccles (1989) proposed that anxiety initially may be characterized more by emotionality, but as children develop cognitively, the worry aspect of anxiety should become increasingly salient. This proposal also remains to be tested, but we do know that worry is a major component of the thought processes of highly anxious fifth and sixth graders (Freedman-Doan, 1994). This hypothesis also points to the importance of middle childhood for the development of performance anxiety because these cognitive changes occur most rapidly during the 6- to 9-year-old period of life (Harter, 1998).

Why Am I Doing This

Achievement goal theory is the newest motivational approach to understanding children's engagement in various skill-based activities like school and sports (see Midgley, 2002). This theory focuses on why children think they are engaging in particular achievement-related activities and what they hope to accomplish through their engagement. Although the work related to this theory has progressed independently of the work discussed earlier on the valuing of an activity and on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, the concepts have strong theoretical links to these other theoretical perspectives. We include it in this chapter because individual differences in goals are likely to affect task engagement, as well as the relations of performance outcomes and engagement in mental health and ability self-concepts.

Insights Respiratory Infections

Upper and lower respiratory tract disease is the most common manifestation of symptomatic C. pneumoniae infection. K. Ouchi has discussed the role of this organism in respiratory diseases of pediatric patients. Acute infections, including atypical pneumonia, in young children are perhaps more common than originally thought and can induce wheezing in children with reactive airway disease. Chronic infections in otherwise healthy children make it difficult to determine carrier status. Proper diagnosis and treatment methods remain an understudied area that requires more input to ensure eradication. Blasi et al. complement this analysis by discussing the role of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by the organism, particularly as it relates to coinfections and to immunocompromised status. C. pneumoniae is commonly found in CAP patients and can lead to more serious disease sequelae when left untreated in the presence of other bacterial pathogens. More studies are required to assess...

Health Risks Associated with Single Parent Families

While there appears to be a consensus that children of single parents, especially of single mothers, exhibit behaviors that range from antisocial to increased teenage pregnancy, there is contradictory evidence about increased health risks associated with single-parenthood. Harris and colleagues (1999) reported a very well designed study comparing adolescents from intact families, single-parent families, and blended families coping with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Data on wide-ranging medical, social, and psychological factors were collected on 119 adolescents and their primary caregivers. Of these, 65 resided in intact families, 38 in single-parent families, and 16 in blended families. Adolescent subjects had an average age of 14.3 years. A number of studies, however, have reported on the negative consequences of single-parenthood and nontraditional families on the management of their children's diseases. Soliday et al. (2001) found that in a group of 41 parents of children with...

Depression and Single Parents

One study that did not clearly fall into the above categories investigated the question of family transmission of depression from mother to child. A sample of 115 white, middle-class mothers (mean age 39.6 years) and their children (mean age 13.1 years) was compared with an African-American, predominantly single-mothers group (mean age 32.9 years) and their children (mean age 8.6 years) for maternal depression and depression in their children (Jones et al., 2000). A critical finding was that maternal depression was predictive of child depressive symptoms. No direct evidence was found for a higher rate of depression in single mothers and their children. The quality of the mother-child relationship was also found to have a nonsignificant effect. The strongest support emerged for transmission of depressive symptoms from mother to child. Eamon and Zuehl (2001) also found that maternal depression in single mothers influenced their children's emotional problems directly and indirectly...

Staying in Control of the Interview Setting

Second, there are legitimate interruptions that take a few minutes to manage. For example, the secretary at your seven-year-old daughter's school telephones your office, indicating your child is ill and needs to be picked up from school. This interruption may require five minutes for the interviewer to contact a friend or family member who is free to pick up the child. In this situation, the interviewer should inform the client that a short break from their session is necessary, apologize, and then make the telephone calls. On returning to the session, the interviewer should apologize again, offer restitution for the time missed from the session (e.g., ask the client Can you stay an extra five minutes today or Is it okay to make up the five minutes we lost at our next session ), and then try, as smoothly as possible, to begin where the interview had been interrupted.

Therapeutic Approaches and Changing Family Patterns

Sargent (2001) has given clear recognition to the needs of many if not most single-parent families that extends well beyond the parameters of systems-based family therapy. He noted that more than 60 of American children live some part of their childhood in a single-parent household. In recognition of the vulnerabilities of these families, Sargent recognizes the following stressors of single parenthood economic concerns need for social support relationship issues of children with noncustodial parents balance among home, child rearing, and work relationship with and support from the extended family balance between nurturance and limit setting for children throughout development maintaining a positive relationship with children and between siblings time pressures the need for a fulfilling personal and social life recognizing one's strengths and accomplishments collaboration with the noncustodial parent health concerns of parent and children negotiations with school, child care providers,...

Why Is My Husband So Angry

In this case, the question of burden is relevant. When Mr. Elmer withdrew from his family, much of the responsibility for child care and household activities fell firmly on the shoulders of Mrs. Elmer. She also had to contend with vastly reduced family income. Perhaps she could have coped with these added responsibilities if she did not have to live under the threat of abuse. It is also noteworthy that she lost a reliable partner, who had been a source of much support for her.

Empowering the Client

Women's health groups and disease-focused social movements have long negotiated between objectives of empowerment and protection as they articulate their identities. The first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves, published in 1973, served as the modern, empowered woman's bible that launched a generation of women's health activism. It popularized the phrase Knowledge is Power, and it emphasized the importance of an individual's control over her body through knowledge, particularly in the face of what the authors perceived to be a paternalistic medical establishment Finding out about our bodies and our bodies' needs, starting to take control over that area of our lives, has released for us an energy that has overflowed into our work, our friendships, our relationships with men and women, and for some of us, our marriages and parenthood.16 Simultaneously, however, the book

HIV Infection in Children

An estimated 3 million children are infected with HIV, and an estimated 13 to 23 of these children develop an encephalitis characterized by nodules of microglial cells and multinucleated giant cells similar to those in infected adults. Perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations are prominent. In addition, vascular and parenchymal

Managing Hierarchical Associations

While the Associations table can manage arbitrary N-ary data, that does not mean that every association in the database must be stored this way. Use of the Associations table should be restricted to represent highly heterogeneous facts (where both the number and the nature of the axes vary greatly). Facts best managed in the orthodox fashion include parent-child relationships, a special category of binary relationship. These are seen quite commonly in the NS, for example, with receptors (which have subtypes), and anatomical structures (which have substructures).

Parental Chronic Pain and Illness and Its Effect on Children

Depression and anxiety disorders are relatively common in the chronic pain population. The negative impact of parental, especially maternal, depression, has been shown to be psychologically harmful for children. In a review of the literature on maternal depression and its effects on children (Roy, 2001), I concluded that, in general terms, younger children are more at risk than older children, and that children of depressed parents are vulnerable to childhood and later depression as well as wide-ranging psychopathology and behavioral and social disturbances. The reasons for the vulnerability of the children are not always clear. It is conceivable that major mood disorders have a genetic basis, thus making the offspring susceptible. Parental bonding may be loosened the well-parent's attention may be diverted away from child care (our case illustrations will demonstrate this factor). Both of these factors have considerable power to create emotional disturbance in children. Additionally,...

Special Considerations In Working With Children

Similarly, interviewers, teachers, and other adults frequently either overidentify or underidentify with children. Some adults see themselves as fully capable of understanding children because of a strong belief, I was a kid once and so I know what it's like. Adults suffering from this overidentification may fail to set appropriate boundaries when necessary, project their own childhood conflicts onto children, and or be unable to appreciate unique aspects of children with whom they work. Other adults who underidentify with children may experience children as alien beings not yet fully part of the human race. Adults suffering from underidentification may talk about a child who is sitting three feet away, as if the child were not even in the room. They also might become condescending, rigid, out of touch with issues children face, and or unrealistic in their fears or expectations. To effectively interview children, there are both educational and attitudinal requirements. We encourage...

Afterword Immortality Triumphant

Altruism might not however, seem quite as attractive to immortals. Would an immortal, let us say a 200-year old (the equivalent of a great, great, great, great, great, grandmother or grandfather), be happy as a baby-sitter for the umpteenth time, and would such a baby-sitter be a better baby-sitter than a mortal grandmother or grandfather, to say nothing of a trained child-care worker in a cr che Would a 200-year old worker even want to work after the fifth or sixth run-through at a career Could the immortal store more information than, say, a computer with a mega-giga hard drive supplied with the equivalent of a large number of CDs, and how many times can anyone tell the same joke and make it sound fresh What is more, age is not necessarily a qualification for wisdom, and gems fall from the mouths of babes.

Discussing Confidentiality and Informed Consent

Now (while looking at the child adolescent), one of the trickiest situations is whether I should tell your mom and dad about what we talk about in here. Let me tell you how I like to work and see if it's okay with you. (Look back at parents.) I believe your daughter (son) needs to trust me. So, I would like you to agree that information I give to you about my private conversations with her (him) be limited to general progress reports. In other words, aside from general progress reports, I won't tell you what your child tells me. Of course, there are some exceptions to this, such as if your child is planning or doing something that might be very dangerous or self-destructive. In those cases, I'll tell your child (turn and look to child) that he (she) is planning something I think is dangerous and then we'll have everyone (turn back to parents) come in for an appointment so we can all talk directly about whatever dangerous thing has come up. Is this arrangement okay with all of you

Assessment of physical fitness in paediatric chronic lung diseases

EIB is a specific occurrence for bronchial asthma, although it has a low sensitivity 24 . This is the same for several other measures of indirect bronchial responsiveness. However, measures for direct bronchial responsiveness, such as responsiveness to metacholine, have a greater sensitivity but lower specificity. Also, in other chronic lung disorders, a moderate bronchial responsiveness to metacholine may be found, whereas this is not the case for EIB 24 . Therefore, testing specifically for EIB may be of differential diagnostic value, but otherwise has a minor role in the assessment of other chronic lung disorders. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is of value in children with chronic lung disorders, as it provides important information for assessing disease severity and the ability to perform physical exercise. However, it should be noted that the level of physical fitness in children with mild-to-moderate asthma has been found to be comparable to that of healthy children...

Evidence of Effectiveness

Adolescents completed a battery of physical performance measures, including the number of sit-to-stand movements they could make in a minute and the speed of walking over a 10-m distance. They also completed self-report questionnaires on a range of psychosocial domains, including pain depression, anxiety, coping efforts, disability, somatic awareness, and school attendance. Parents also completed self-report measures about their own anxiety and depression and the parenting stress index that assesses the extent and type of stress they experience in the parenting role. The parents also completed measures of their child's pain, depression, and disability. postprogram. Second, they reported immediately postprogram that they themselves were less depressed, less anxious, less aware of their own physical symptoms, and much less stressed about how to parent their child. All of these significant parental gains were maintained at 3 months following treatment. Although we have been able to...

School as a Venue for Health Care

Several other factors support the change in focus of health care delivery from tertiary care settings to community settings (1). These include advances in child development that underscore a social-ecological model by attending to all systems in the child's life (e.g., home, school). Moreover, the limitations of the medical model that traditionally has assumed a deficit model in health care have School interventions offer opportunities like easy access to assessment data, a venue to examine specific functions of behavior, the possibility of multidisci-plinary teams for collaboration on assessment and remedy of specific behavior, and access to multiple change agents (e.g., peers, teachers) (1). School personnel are ideally positioned for intervening directly in the child's natural environment, monitoring interventions in this environment, and providing a context for observing how competent, healthy children develop.

Predictive uncertainty and the demands of consumerism

Mary It's just not that bad when you compare it with other things really and at least 75 per cent of breast cancers are curable nowadays. I've got one woman later today and she's got this condition which affects young adults and teenagers who really don't know that they've got it until they drop down dead It's such a terrible condition and knowing that your child could die at any moment, it's absolutely dreadful.

Gene Environment Correlations

Evidence that gene-environment correlations are important to anxiety and depression comes from a range of twin and family designs. Because such correlations essentially refer to the co-occurrence of genetic and environmental effects on phenotypic variation, support for these correlations primarily involves demonstrating that an environmental risk variable also shows genetic influence. Many environmental predictors of anxiety and depression, such as negative life events and aspects of the parent-child relationship, have been found to show genetic effects (Lau, Rijsdijk, & Eley, in press Pike, McGuire, Hetherington, Reiss, & Plomin, 1996 Saudino, Pedersen, Lichtenstein, McClearn, & Plomin, 1997). Moreover, such genetic effects also overlap with genes that are implicated in outcome measures of emotional symptoms. This indicates that genetic risks for these phenotypes may in part be expressed through an exposure to environmental risk, and this exposure has been suggested to arise...

Early And Late Childhood

The following figure demonstrates some tricks to getting children to open their mouths. The child who can say ahhh will usually offer a sufficient (albeit brief) view of the posterior pharynx so that a tongue blade is unnecessary. Healthy children are more likely to cooperate with this examination than sick children, especially if the sick child sees the tongue blade or has had previous experience with throat cultures.

Secton 2 nuts and bolts of bologcal databases and their cqnstructqn

A hierarchical database is structured with a parent child relationship from a source usually called the root. One parent may have multiple children, but children have only one parent. The data item is called a leaf or node, and the path back to the root is called a branch. Computer folder and file navigation is an example. Each drive is a root, and all files on that drive are linked back to the root through a hierarchical structure. When implemented in a formal software-driven database, algorithms called tree searches are used to locate and extract data. However, the data are forced into a structure that does not easily accommodate items that can be in multiple categories, e.g., proteins with multiple functions. The result is that single items are repeated on various branches in order to fit the schema. Each node is independent if the information in one node is updated, the others are not. This leads to problems with multiple versions of information.

Contemplating Immortal Life

In the case of surrogacy, parental assignment is usually awarded to those who pay for the procedure.17 If the same policy applies to immortalized people, parenthood may be decided by the highest bidder. The State, which will inevitably pick up a share of the tab, might also demand a role in parenting or, at least, in assigning parenthood. Paying this piper, however, may utterly destroy anything presently resembling family.

Peter G Szilagyi MD MPH

Before you can effectively talk to and examine a child, you need to understand children and their development. Children are anatomically and physiologically different from adults, and many techniques for assessment, physical findings, and abnormalities in young patients differ as well. Children display tremendous variations in physical, cognitive, and social development compared with adults. This chapter opens with the section on Child Development to help you assess children at all ages and to distinguish normal from abnormal symptoms and signs. The first principle of child development is that it proceeds along a predictable pathway governed by the maturing brain. You can measure age-specific milestones and characterize a child's development as normal or abnormal according to established criteria. Once a milestone is achieved, the child proceeds to the next. Loss of milestones is concerning. Because your physical examination takes place at one point in time, you need to learn where...

The Replacement of Maternal Breastfeeding

For the foundling Moses the fact that the wet nurse was Moses's own mother is incidental. The epic poems of Homer, written down around 900 bc, contain references to wet nurses. A treatise on pediatric care in India, written during the second century ad, contains instructions on how to qualify a wet nurse when the mother could not provide milk. The Koran, written about ad 500, also permits parents to give your children out to nurse.

On The Applied Side Training Generalized Imitation

Donald Baer conducted the early research on generalized imitation and pioneered its application. Don was born in Chicago in 1931 and attended the University of Chicago where, in 1957, he received his Ph.D. in psychology under the supervision of Jacob L. Gewirtz. With Sidney W. Bijou at the University of Washington (1957-1965), Don established the behavior analysis approach to child development and contributed to the experimental analysis of child behavior. Together with Montrose M. Wolf and Todd R. Risley at the University of Kansas (1965-2002), he founded the discipline of applied behavior analysis. Don had more than 200 research and related publications and contributed to a number of literatures including early education, social development, language development, self-regulation, and imitation. Don received numerous awards from the American Psychological Association and the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, served as an international distinguished professor, and...

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is the only vitamin whose biologically active form is a hormone. The term vitamin D refers to a family of related compounds. Vitamin D3 (also called cholecalcife-rol) is the form synthesized from cholesterol in sun-exposed skin. For healthy children and adults, exposing the hands, face, and arms on a clear summer day for 10-15 minutes several times each week provides adequate vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is the natural form of the vitamin found in animal products such as eggs, fish, and liver. Another form of vitamin D, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), is synthesized by certain fungi and is used in many supplements and as a food fortifier. However, vitamin D3 is the preferred form for humans as its bioavailability is twice that of vitamin D2.1

Stimulus Classes

In a preceding section, we noted that responses that produce similar effects may be many and varied. To encompass response variation in form, behavior analysts use the term response class. Stimuli that regulate operant and respondent behavior also vary from one time to the next. When stimuli vary across physical dimensions but have a common effect on behavior, they are said to be part of the same stimulus class. Bijou and Baer (1978) have used the concept of stimulus class in an analysis of child development and have made the point that

Chronic Pain

Parents have a critical role in decreasing chronic pain. They need to encourage normal behavior and deemphasize responding to pain escalations. This can be done sympathetically without appearing to ignore the pain, but by positively emphasizing the virtue of coping, parents can encourage children to practice cognitive behavioral strategies and can function as a coach emphasizing those strategies during painful episodes or procedures.


NAI in children is a common condition and carries with it a significant morbidity and mortality. Physicians must be able to recognize NAI and take appropriate action to protect children. Young children and infants are at particular risk, and there is often an overlap with other forms of abuse. A multidisciplinary approach aimed at early intervention, support for families, improvements in parenting styles, and prevention of mortality and morbidity in the child is essential to safeguard the welfare of children.


Absence of lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B, including LDL and VLDL, is a rare genetic disorder. People with abetalipoproteinemia have extremely low levels of total cholesterol and the vast majority is HDL-C. They also have low levels of triglycerides. The disorder becomes evident in infants with fat absorption problems and difficulty in weight gain and growth. Characteristic of these individuals is red blood cell membrane defects, including acanthocytes, or thorn-shaped erythrocytes. Without treatment, these children develop severe vision, neurological, and mobility problems.14

Wishes and Goals

To explore core client problems using the wishes and goals strategy, make a statement similar to the following, with the parents (or caretaker) and child present (unless the child is about 6-years-old or younger, in which case you may simply meet with the parents to focus on parenting strategies) Research has shown that there are three common parenting styles authoritarian parents, permissive parents, and authoritative parents (Baumrind, 1975 Coloroso, 1995). Authoritarian parents are also referred to as brickwallparents because they make rules that are etched in stone and govern the home with a dictatorial my way or the highway style (Coloroso, 1995). Permissive parents are often referred to as jellyfish parents because they have difficulty setting and enforcing family rules and values. Children of jellyfish parents tend to rule the house. In contrast, authoritative parents have been labeled backbone parents because they set reasonable rules, parent democratically, and listen to...

The Closing

As with adult interviews, you will probably always wish you could gather more information than you were able to get in 50 minutes. Unfortunately, you need to stop playing or gathering information and begin to wind down activities to ensure a smooth, unhurried closing with your child client.


The first 4 years of childhood (De Bolle et al. 2005). The time of HHV-6A infection is still unknown, but is thought to occur following infection with HHV-6B. As a consequence, roseoloviruses are ubiquitously spread in the general adult population, usually reaching a seroprevalence of greater than 95 . Primary infection with HHV-6b or HHV-7 results in an acute febrile illness that is in some cases followed by the appearance of a mild skin rash on the face and trunk (i.e., exanthem subitum or roseola infantum Yamanishi et al. 1988 Tanaka et al. 1994). Interestingly, infection with HHV-6A is usually asymptomatic (Dewhurst et al. 1993 Stodberg et al. 2002 Freitas et al. 2003). Clinical complications of (primary) HHV-6 and -7 infections include febrile seizure, but also meningoencephalitis, encephalopathy, and multiple sclerosis (for a review see De Bolle et al. 2005). Importantly, primary HHV-7 infection can reactivate HHV-6 (Frenkel and Wyatt 1992 Katsafanas et al. 1996 Tanaka-Taya et...


Five top-level concepts clinical outcomes, pharmacodynamics and drug responses, pharmacokinetics, molecular and cellular functional assays, and genotypes. Overall, the ontology includes 120 total concepts and 90 leaf-level concepts and has a maximal depth of three parent-child relationships.


Washington, DC Author. Andershed, H. A., Gustafson, S. B., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2002). The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents. European Journal of Personality, 16, 383-402. Arseneault, L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., Rijsdijk, F. V., Jaffee, S. R., et al. (2003). Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins' self-reports. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(6), 832-848. Barry, C. T., Frick, P. J., DeShazo, T. M., McCoy, M. G., Ellis, M., & Loney, B. R. (2000). The importance of callous-unemotional traits for extending the concept of psychopathy to children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 335-340. Blair, R. J. R. (2001). Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy. Journal...


As is the case for well child care, the provision of age- and condition-appropriate immunizations is an important component of well-adult care. Recommendations for immunizations change from time to time and the most up-to-date source of vaccine recommendations is the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Its immunization schedules are widely published and are available at the Centers for Disease Control website (among other places) at www.cdc.gov.

Deli nit ions

Ethical considerations when treating adolescent patients can be complex and one should use the moral principles of ethics, which include autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice to guide clinical decisions to maintain confidentiality. Respect for autonomy should involve respect for the patient's wishes, choices, and beliefs when deciding what is best for the patient. It is important to understand the dynamics of the parent-child relationship and why the teen does not want to disclose important medical information to parents. This type of dialogue may reveal very important things about the child's current situation and help to guide your decision making. Knowing the intricacies of the family dynamic may also help the clinician and