Interventions To Reduce Cytokines

Physical training can reduce the plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in CHF patients. This immunomodulatory effect may be related to the training-induced improvement in functional status of these patients. Plasma levels of TNF-a, soluble TNF receptors I and II (sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII, respectively), IL-6, and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured before and after a 12-week program of physical training by patients with stable CHF and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 23%. Physical training produced a significant reduction in plasma levels of the measured cytokines. An increase in VO2max was also seen. Good correlations were found between a training-induced increase in VO2max and a training-induced reduction in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-a in patients with CHF. In contrast, no significant difference in circulating cytokines was found with physical training in normal subjects [86].

Testosterone levels decline with aging in both men [87] and women [88]. Testosterone replacement in men increases muscle mass [89-91] and strength [92, 93], and decreases fat mass [90, 94, 95]. Adipocytes are a potent source of cytokines, including TNF-a and leptin. The effect of testosterone on functional status may be mediated by reducing cytokine excess through an effect on adipocytes [96-98].

Recently, megestrol acetate, a potent orexigenic agent, has been shown to produce its effects by decreasing cytokine release [99,100]. This suggests that one approach to preventing functional decline is to use a cytokine inhibitor [101]. A large number of other pharmacological agents have been tried, with varying success, with the aim of lowering excessive cytokines [102].

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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