Interventions To Reduce Cytokines

Physical training can reduce the plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in CHF patients. This immunomodulatory effect may be related to the training-induced improvement in functional status of these patients. Plasma levels of TNF-a, soluble TNF receptors I and II (sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII, respectively), IL-6, and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured before and after a 12-week program of physical training by patients with stable CHF and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 23%. Physical training produced a significant reduction in plasma levels of the measured cytokines. An increase in VO2max was also seen. Good correlations were found between a training-induced increase in VO2max and a training-induced reduction in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-a in patients with CHF. In contrast, no significant difference in circulating cytokines was found with physical training in normal subjects [86].

Testosterone levels decline with aging in both men [87] and women [88]. Testosterone replacement in men increases muscle mass [89-91] and strength [92, 93], and decreases fat mass [90, 94, 95]. Adipocytes are a potent source of cytokines, including TNF-a and leptin. The effect of testosterone on functional status may be mediated by reducing cytokine excess through an effect on adipocytes [96-98].

Recently, megestrol acetate, a potent orexigenic agent, has been shown to produce its effects by decreasing cytokine release [99,100]. This suggests that one approach to preventing functional decline is to use a cytokine inhibitor [101]. A large number of other pharmacological agents have been tried, with varying success, with the aim of lowering excessive cytokines [102].

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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