Proinflammatory Cytokines and the Acute Phase Response

Among the specific causes of CACS, there is evidence of a chronic, low-grade, tumour-induced activation of the host immune system that shares numerous characteristics with the acute-phase response found after major traumatic events and septic shock. The latter is characterised by an increased production of cytokines [27, 28]; high levels of catecholamine, cortisol, and glucagon [27, 29-31]; increased peripheral amino-acid mobilisation and hepatic amino acid uptake [27, 32]; increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and acute-phase protein production [27, 33, 34]; and enhanced mobilisation of free fatty acids and increased metabolism [35]. The acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to tissue injury, typically observed during inflammation, infection or trauma. It consists of the release of hepatocyte-derived plasma proteins, known as acute-phase reactants, which include C-reactive protein, fib-rinogen, complement factors B and C3, and of a reduced synthesis of albumin and transferrin. An acute-phase response is observed in patients with cancer. In fact, the cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-a are regarded as the major mediators of acute-phase protein induction in the liver. Unfortunately, the role played by these proteins during cancer growth is still poorly understood.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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