References

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1. Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ (1983) Diet-induced thermo-genesis. Adv Nutr Res 5:201-220

2. Lanzola E, Turconi G (2001) Bisogni nutrizionali ed effetti farmacologici dei nutrienti in Farmacologia e Nutrizione. UTET, Torino, pp 1-14

3. Trayhurn P (1989) Thermogenesis and the energetics of pregnancy and lactation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 67:370-375

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5. Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ (1997) A role for brown adipose tissue in diet induced thermogenesis. Obes Res 5:650-656

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7. Anonymous (1985) FAO/WHO/UNU Energy and protein requirements. Technical Report series n. 724, WHO, Geneva

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nicotine significantly reduced body weight gain, but not food intake [15].

In general, the DIT produced by a mixed diet is lower than that resulting from consumption of single dietary components. It has been calculated that a mixed diet contributes to 10% of the total energy expenditure. The size of the effect also depends on the nutritional condition of the subject. For example, in malnourished children a test meal had a maximum DIT effect of 6%,while when the children were growing rapidly during nutritional rehabilitation the effect of the same meal was 23%; when recovery was complete, the value returned to 6% [16].

9. Erlanson-Albertsson C (2003) The role of uncoupling proteins in the regulation of metabolism. Acta Physiol Scand 178:405-412

10. Ferrannini E, Galvan AQ, Gastaldelli A et al (1999) Insulin: new roles for an ancient hormone. Eur J Clin Invest 29:842-852

11. Dulloo AG, Seydoux J, Girardier L et al (2000) Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between cate-chin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:252-258

12. Arciero PJ, Bougopoulos CL, Mindi BC, Benowitz NL (2000) Influence of age on thermic response to caffeine in women. Metabolism 49:101-107

13. Bracco D, Ferrara JM, Arnaud MJ et al (1995) Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism heart rate and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women. Am J Phys 269:E671-E678

14. Henry CJ, Emery B (1986) Effect of spiced food on metabolic rate. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40:165-168

15. Wellman PJ, Marmon HM, Reich S, Ruddle J (1986) Effects of nicotine on body weight, food intake and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Pharmacol Biochim Behav 24:1605-1609

16. Brooke OG, Ashworth A (1972) The influence of malnutrition on the postprandial metabolic rate and respiratory quotient. Br J Nutr 27:407-415

Section 3 Assessment of Nutritional Status

Chapter 3.1

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Boost Your Metabolism and Burn Fat

Boost Your Metabolism and Burn Fat

Metabolism. There isn’t perhaps a more frequently used word in the weight loss (and weight gain) vocabulary than this. Indeed, it’s not uncommon to overhear people talking about their struggles or triumphs over the holiday bulge or love handles in terms of whether their metabolism is working, or not.

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