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[48.1] D. Breast tissue usually is infantile with gonadal dysgenesis because no estrogen is produced; these patients are at risk for osteoporosis. Breast tissue is a reflection of endogenous estrogen. They have primary amenorrhea, and usually a 45,X karyotype.

[48.21 C. Delayed puberty is defined as no secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 years.

[48.3] A. With gonadal dysgenesis, the FSH level is elevated.

[48.4] D. The Y chromosome predisposes intra-abdominal gonads to malignancy. Even a mosaic karyotype, such as 46,XX/46,XY, would predispose to gonadal malignancy.

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