[21.1] A. Multiple organisms are most likely encountered in acute salpingitis. Syphilis is not a common cause of salpingitis.

[21.2] D. Laparoscopy is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing salpingitis.

[21.3] A. IUD use increases the risk of PID. Oral contraceptive agents decrease the risk of PID by virtue of the progestin thickening the cervical mucus and thinning the endometrium.

[21.4] E. Sulfur granules are classic for Actinomyces, which occurs more often in the presence of an IUD. Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive anaerobe, which is generally sensitive to penicillin.

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