Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Synonymous with salpingitis (infection of the fallopian tubes). Cervical motion tenderness: Extreme tenderness when the uterine cervix is manipulated digitally, which suggests salpingitis. Ascending infection: Mechanism of upper genital tract infection whereby the offending microorganisms arise from the lower genital tract. Ttibo-ovarian abscess (TOA): Collection of purulent material within and around the distal tube and ovary, which, unlike the typical abscess, often is treatable by antibiotic therapy rather than surgical drainage.

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