Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

James Nachman, Giuseppe Masera, and W. Archie Bleyer

6.1 Introduction 83

6.2 Classification System and Methods 83

6.3 Incidence 84

6.3.1 Age-Specific Incidence 84

6.3.2 Gender-Specific Incidence 84

6.3.3 Racial/Ethnic Differences in Incidence . 85

6.3.4 Incidence Trends 85

6.4 Risk Factors 85

6.5 Clinical Presentations and Molecular Biology 86

6.6 Treatment 88

6.7 Toxicity and Late Effects 91

6.8 Outcome 92

6.9 Summary and Conclusions 92

References 96

7 Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

Ursula Creutzig and William G. Woods

7.1 Abstract 99

7.2 Introduction 99

7.3 Epidemiology/Etiology 100

7.3.1 Incidence 100

7.3.2 Etiology 100

7.3.3 Trends in survival 102

7.3.4 Prognostic factors 102

7.3.5 Treatment differences 103

7.4 Biology/Pathology 103

7.5 Diagnosis: Symptoms and Clinical Signs .. . 104

7.6 Treatment/Management 104

7.7 Participation in Clinical Trials 105

7.8 Expected Outcome, Including Late Effects . 106

7.9 Summary 107

References 107

8 Hodgkin Lymphoma

Tanya M. Trippett, Alexis Mottl, Odile Oberlin, W. Archie Bleyer, and Louis S. Constine

8.1 introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

8.2 Epidemiology/Etiology 111

8.2.1 Incidence 111

8.2.1.2 Gender-Specific Incidence. 112

8.2.1.3 Racial/Ethnic Differences in Incidence 113

8.2.1.4 Trends in Incidence 113

8.3 Etiology/Risk Factors 113

8.4 Pathology/Molecular Genetics 115

8.5 Symptoms and Clinical Signs 116

8.6 Diagnostic Testing 116

8.6.1 Hematology 116

8.6.2 Imaging 117

8.6.3 Surgery 117

8.6.4 Clinical Staging 117

8.7 Treatment/Management 118

8.7.1 General Treatment Consideration . . .118

8.7.2 Specific Treatment Trials 119

8.8 Outcome 122

8.8.1 Mortality 122

8.8.2 Survival 122

8.8.3 Specific Treatment Trials 122

8.9 Follow-up/Late Effects 122

8.10 Conclusions 123

References 124

9 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Catherine Patte, W. Archie Bleyer, and Mitchell S. Cairo

9.1 Introduction 127

9.2 Epidemiology 128

9.2.1 Age-Specific Incidence 128

9.2.2 Incidence of Histologic Types 129

9.2.3 Gender-Specific Incidence 129

9.2.4 Racial/Ethnic Differences in Incidence 129

9.3 Etiology/Risk Factors 130

9.4 Histology/Cytogenetics 130

9.5 Clinical Features 132

9.6 Initial Work-Up and Staging 132

9.7 B-Cell non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (B-Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma) 134

9.7.1 Burkitt Lymphoma 134

9.7.3 Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma . . . 136

9.7.3.1 Biology/Pathology 136

9.7.3.2 Treatment/Management of S-ALCL 137

9.8 Lymphoblastic Lymphoma 140

9.8.1 Biology/Pathology 140

9.8.2 Treatment and Management 141

9.9 Overall Survival 143

9.10 Conclusions 144

References 145

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