And Staging Considerations

Although invasive epithelial ovarian cancer is typically a disease of post-menopausal women, LMP tumors tend to occur in younger women, with 71% occurring in pre-menopausal women. The average age at presentation is 40 years, approximately 10 years younger than the average age of women with invasive disease [52].

If the diagnosis of LMP tumor is made post-opera-tively, the patient may need to undergo repeat exploration for a staging procedure, as up to 24% of patients with apparent stage I or II disease are upstaged on repeat exploration [53], and a percentage of these patients may have invasive metastatic implants [54]. These findings are extremely important since they affect staging and treatment recommendations. Alternatively, close surveillance with periodic history and physical examinations, serum CA-125 levels, and CT scans can be performed.

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